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Technical Paper

Analytical Evaluation of Fitted Piston Compression Ring: Modal Behaviour and Frictional Assessment

2011-05-17
2011-01-1535
Piston compression rings are thin, incomplete circular structures which are subject to complex motions during a typical 4-stroke internal combustion engine cycle. Ring dynamics comprises its inertial motion relative to the piston, within the confine of its seating groove. There are also elastodynamic modes, such as the ring in-plane motions. A number of modes can be excited, dependent on the net applied force. The latter includes the ring tension and cylinder pressure loading, both of which act outwards on the ring and conform it to the cylinder bore. There is also the radial inward force as the result of ring-bore conjunctional pressure (i.e. contact force). Under transient conditions, the inward and outward forces do not equilibrate, resulting in the small inertial radial motion of the ring.
Journal Article

Real-Time Optimal Energy Management of Heavy Duty Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2013-04-08
2013-01-1748
The performance of energy flow management strategies is essential for the success of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), which are considered amongst the most promising solutions for improving fuel economy as well as reducing exhaust emissions. The heavy duty HEVs engaged in cycles characterized by start-stop configuration has attracted widely interests, especially in off-road applications. In this paper, a fuzzy equivalent consumption minimization strategy (F-ECMS) is proposed as an intelligent real-time energy management solution for heavy duty HEVs. The online optimization problem is formulated as minimizing a cost function, in terms of weighted fuel power and electrical power. A fuzzy rule-based approach is applied on the weight tuning within the cost function, with respect to the variations of the battery state-of-charge (SOC) and elapsed time.
Technical Paper

Using Pneumatic Hybrid Technology to Reduce Fuel Consumption and Eliminate Turbo-Lag

2013-04-08
2013-01-1452
For the vehicles with frequent stop-start operations, fuel consumption can be reduced significantly by implementing stop-start operation. As one way to realize this goal, the pneumatic hybrid technology converts kinetic energy to pneumatic energy by compressing air into air tanks installed on the vehicle. The compressed air can then be reused to drive an air starter to realize a regenerative stop-start function. Furthermore, the pneumatic hybrid can eliminate turbo-lag by injecting compressed air into manifold and a correspondingly larger amount of fuel into the cylinder to build-up full-load torque almost immediately. This paper takes the pneumatic hybrid engine as the research object, focusing on evaluating the improvement of fuel economy of multiple air tanks in different test cycles. Also theoretical analysis the benefits of extra boost on reducing turbo-lag to achieve better performance.
Journal Article

Crankcase Sampling of PM from a Fired and Motored Compression Ignition Engine

2011-09-11
2011-24-0209
Crankcase emissions are a complex mixture of combustion products and aerosol generated from lubrication oil. The crankcase emissions contribute substantially to the total particulate matter (PM) emitted from an engine. Environment legislation demands that either the combustion and crankcase emissions are combined to give a total measurement, or the crankcase gases are re-circulated back into the engine. There is a lack of understanding regarding the physical processes that generate crankcase aerosols, with a paucity of information on the size/mass concentrations of particles present in the crankcase. In this study the particulate matter crankcase emissions were measured from a fired and motored 4-cylinder compression ignition engine at a range of speeds and crankcase locations.
Technical Paper

Challenges and Potential of Intra-Cycle Combustion Control for Direct Injection Diesel Engines

2012-04-16
2012-01-1158
The injection timing of a Diesel internal combustion engine typically follows a prescribed sequence depending on the operating condition using open loop control. Due to advances in sensors and digital electronics it is now possible to implement closed loop control based on in cylinder pressure values. Typically this control action is slow, and it may take several cycles or at least one cycle (cycle-to-cycle control). Using high speed sensors, it becomes technically possible to measure pressure deviations and correct them within the same cycle (intra-cycle control). For example the in cylinder pressure after the pilot inject can be measured, and the timing of the main injection can be adjusted in timing and duration to compensate any deviations in pressure from the expected reference value. This level of control can significantly reduce the deviations between cycles and cylinders, and it can also improve the transient behavior of the engine.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Flow Structure Analysis by Particle Image Velocimetry Under Steady State Condition

2012-09-24
2012-01-1975
This paper deals with experimental investigations of the in-cylinder flow structures under steady state conditions utilizing Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The experiments have been conducted on an engine head of a pent-roof type (Lotus) for a number of fixed valve lifts and different inlet valve configurations at two pressure drops, 250mm and 635mm of H2O that correlate with engine speeds of 2500 and 4000 RPM respectively. From the two-dimensional in-cylinder flow measurements, a tumble flow analysis is carried out for six planes parallel to the cylinder axis. In addition, a swirl flow analysis is carried out for one horizontal plane perpendicular to the cylinder axis at half bore downstream from the cylinder head (44mm). The results show the advantage of using the planar technique (PIV) for investigating the complete flow structures developed inside the cylinder.
Technical Paper

Optical Diagnostics and CFD Validation of Jacket Cooling System Filling and the Occurrence of Trapped Air

2012-04-16
2012-01-1213
This paper reports the findings from an experimental investigation of the engine cooling jacket filling process for a medium duty off-highway diesel engine to characterise the physical processes that lead to the occurrence of trapped air. The motivation for the project was to provide knowledge and data to aid the development of a computational design tool capable of predicting the amount and location of trapped air in a cooling circuit following a fill event. To quantify the coolant filling process, a transparent replica of a section of the cylinder head cooling core was manufactured from acrylic to allow the application of optical diagnostic techniques. Experimentation has characterised the coolant filling process through the use of three optical techniques. These include the two established methods of High-Speed Imaging and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), as well as a novel approach developed for tracking the liquid-air interface during the fill event.
Technical Paper

Effect of Compression Ring Elastodynamics Behaviour upon Blowby and Power Loss

2014-04-01
2014-01-1669
The automotive industry is subject to increasing pressure to reduce the CO2 emissions and improve fuel efficiency in internal combustion engines. Improvements may be achieved in a number of ways. The parasitic losses throughout the engine cycle emanate from friction in all engine contact conjunctions in addition to pumping losses. In particular one main contributory conjunction is the piston ring pack assembly. At low engine speeds, the contribution of friction to the total losses within the engine is increased significantly compared with the thermodynamic losses. Additionally, the sealing capability of the ring is crucial in determining the power output of the engine with any loss of sealing contributing to power loss, as well as blowby. Most reported studies on compression ring-cylinder conjunction do not take into account complex ring in-plane and out-of-plane elastodynamics.
Technical Paper

Managing Loads on Aircraft Generators to Prevent Overheat In-Flight

2014-09-16
2014-01-2195
On future UAVs it is envisaged that the power requirements of all on-board electrical systems will increase. In most flight (mission) situations the installed power generation will have adequate capacity to operate the aircraft. It is possible that during abnormal situations such as coolant blockage the generators on-board may be forced to operate under very high load conditions. The main failure mechanism for a generator is overheating and subsequent disintegration of windings, hence the research problem being addressed here is to manage the loads upon the generator to prevent overheats. The research presented here summarizes the modeling of the generator and formation of the load management system. Results are presented showing the system reallocating loads after a fault during flight, preventing overheat of the generators and successfully completing the mission.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Cylinder De-Activation on Thermo-Friction Characteristics of the Connecting Rod Bearing in the New European Drive Cycle (NEDC)

2014-06-30
2014-01-2089
This paper presents an investigation of Cylinder De-Activation (CDA) technology on the performance of big end bearings. A multi-physics approach is used in order to take into account more realistic dynamic loading effects on the tribological behavior. The power loss, minimum film thickness and maximum temperature of big end bearings have been calculated during maneuver pertaining to the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Results show that bearing efficiency runs contrary to efficiency gained through combustion and pumping losses. Under CDA mode, the power loss of big end bearings is more than the power loss under engine normal mode. The problem is predominant at higher engine speeds and higher Brake mean Effective Pressures (BMEP) in active cylinders. It is also observed that the minimum film thickness is reduced under the CDA mode. This can affect wear performance. In addition, same behavior is noted for the maximum temperature rise which is higher under CDA.
Technical Paper

Using a Statistical Machine Learning Tool for Diesel Engine Air Path Calibration

2014-09-30
2014-01-2391
A full calibration exercise of a diesel engine air path can take months to complete (depending on the number of variables). Model-based calibration approach can speed up the calibration process significantly. This paper discusses the overall calibration process of the air-path of the Cat® C7.1 engine using statistical machine learning tool. The standard Cat® C7.1 engine's twin-stage turbocharger was replaced by a VTG (Variable Turbine Geometry) as part of an evaluation of a novel air system. The changes made to the air-path system required a recalculation of the air path's boost set point and desired EGR set point maps. Statistical learning processes provided a firm basis to model and optimize the air path set point maps and allowed a healthy balance to be struck between the resources required for the exercise and the resulting data quality.
Journal Article

Insights into Cold-Start DISI Combustion in an Optical Engine Operating at −7°C

2013-04-08
2013-01-1309
Particulate Matter (PM) emissions reduction is an imminent challenge for Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI) engine designers due to the introduction of Particulate Number (PN) standards in the proposed Euro 6 emissions legislation aimed at delivering the next phase of air quality improvements. An understanding of how the formation of combustion-derived nanoparticulates in engines is affected by the engine operating temperature is important for air quality improvement and will influence future engine design and control strategies. This investigation has examined the effect on combustion and PM formation when reducing the engine operating temperature to -7°C. A DISI single-cylinder optical research engine was modified to simulate a range of operating temperatures down to the proposed -7°C.
Technical Paper

Analysis of SI Combustion Diagnostics Methods Using Ion-Current Sensing Techniques

2006-04-03
2006-01-1345
Closed-loop electronic control is a proven and efficient way to optimize spark ignition engine performance and to control pollutant emissions. In-cylinder pressure sensors provide accurate information on the quality of combustion. The conductivity of combustion flames can alternatively be used as a measure of combustion quality through ion-current measurements. In this paper, combustion diagnostics through ion-current sensing are studied. A single cylinder research engine was used to investigate the effects of misfire, ignition timing, air to fuel ratio, compression ratio, speed and load on the ion-current signal. The ion-current signal was obtained via one, or both, of two additional, remote in-cylinder ion sensors (rather than by via the firing spark plug, as is usually the case). The ion-current signals obtained from a single remote sensor, and then the two remote sensors are compared.
Technical Paper

The HOTFIRE Homogeneous GDI and Fully Variable Valve Train Project - An Initial Report

2006-04-03
2006-01-1260
There is a great deal of interest in new technologies to assist in reducing the CO2 output of passenger vehicles, as part of the drive to meet the limits agreed by the EU and the European Automobile Manufacturer's Association ACEA, itself a result of the Kyoto Protocol. For the internal combustion engine, the most promising of these include gasoline direct injection, downsizing and fully variable valve trains. While new types of spray-guided gasoline direct injection (GDI) combustion systems are finally set to yield the level of fuel consumption improvement which was originally promised for the so-called ‘first generation’ wall- and air-guided types of GDI, injectors for spray-guided combustion systems are not yet in production to help justify the added complication and cost of the NOx trap necessary with a stratified combustion concept.
Technical Paper

The Measurement of Liner - Piston Skirt Oil Film Thickness by an Ultrasonic Means

2006-04-03
2006-01-0648
The paper presents a novel method for the measurement of lubricant film thickness in the piston-liner contact. Direct measurement of the film in this conjunction has always posed a problem, particularly under fired conditions. The principle is based on capturing and analysing the reflection of an ultrasonic pulse at the oil film. The proportion of the wave amplitude reflected can be related to the thickness of the oil film. A single cylinder 4-stroke engine on a dyno test platform was used for evaluation of the method. A piezo-electric transducer was bonded to the outside of the cylinder liner and used to emit high frequency short duration ultrasonic pulses. These pulses were used to determine the oil film thickness as the piston skirt passed over the sensor location. Oil films in the range 2 to 21 μm were recorded varying with engine speeds. The results have been shown to be in agreement with detailed numerical predictions.
Technical Paper

Comparison between Unthrottled, Single and Two-valve Induction Strategies Utilising Direct Gasoline Injection: Emissions, Heat-release and Fuel Consumption Analysis

2008-06-23
2008-01-1626
For a spark-ignition engine, the parasitic loss suffered as a result of conventional throttling has long been recognised as a major reason for poor part-load fuel efficiency. While lean, stratified charge, operation addresses this issue, exhaust gas aftertreatment is more challenging compared with homogeneous operation and three-way catalyst after-treatment. This paper adopts a different approach: homogeneous charge direct injection (DI) operation with variable valve actuations which reduce throttling losses. In particular, low-lift and early inlet valve closing (EIVC) strategies are investigated. Results from a thermodynamic single cylinder engine are presented that quantify the effect of two low-lift camshafts and one standard high-lift camshaft operating EIVC strategies at four engine running conditions; both, two- and single-inlet valve operation were investigated. Tests were conducted for both port and DI fuelling, under stoichiometric conditions.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Air Flow Around an Inlet Valve Using a Pitot Probe

1998-02-23
980142
This paper describes a detailed study into the use of a pitot probe to measure air flow around an inlet valve under steady state conditions. The study was undertaken to assess the feasibility of the method for locating areas of a port and valve which may be contributing to a poor overall discharge coefficient. This method would provide a simple and cheap experimental tool for use throughout the industry. The method involves mounting a miniature internal chamfer pitot tube on a slider attached to the base of the valve. The probe can traverse the appropriate area by rotating the valve and moving it along the slide. Changing the probe allows measurements in different planes, allowing the whole region around the valve to be surveyed. The cylinder head complete with instrumentation is mounted on a steady flow rig. The paper presents the results obtained at different valve lifts on a production cylinder head.
Technical Paper

Development of a Validated CFD Process for the Analysis of Inlet Manifold Flows with EGR

2002-03-04
2002-01-0071
Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) is one of several technologies that are being investigated to deliver future legislative emissions targets for diesel engines. Its application requires a detailed understanding of the thermo-fluidic processes within the engine's air system. A validated Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) process is one way of providing this understanding. This paper describes a CFD process to analyse unsteady manifold flows and mixing fields in the presence of realistic levels of EGR. The validation methodology was drawn from the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) and divides the problem into smaller elemental problems. Detailed knowledge about these elemental problems is easily attainable, reducing the requirement for a large number of complex validation runs. The final validated process was compared to flow visualization and particle image velocimetry (PIV) data collected from a motored engine.
Technical Paper

Robust Methodology for Fast Crank Angle Based Temperature Measurement

2016-04-05
2016-01-1072
The paper presents a measurement methodology which combines a fine-wire thermocouple with input reconstruction in order to measure crank angle resolved temperature in an engine air-intake system. Thermocouples that are of practical use in engine experiments tend to have a large time constant which affects measurement accuracy during rapid temperature transients. Input reconstruction methods have previously been applied to thermocouples but have not been specifically used in combination with an ultra-thin uninsulated wire thermocouple to investigate cyclic intake temperature behavior. Accurate measurement results are of interest to improve the validity of many crank-angle resolved engine models. An unshielded thermocouple sensor has been developed which is rigid enough to withstand the aerodynamic forces of the intake air.
Technical Paper

Control-Oriented Dynamics Analysis for Electrified Turbocharged Diesel Engines

2016-04-05
2016-01-0617
Engine electrification is a critical technology in the promotion of engine fuel efficiency, among which the electrified turbocharger is regarded as the promising solution in engine downsizing. By installing electrical devices on the turbocharger, the excess energy can be captured, stored, and re-used. The electrified turbocharger consists of a variable geometry turbocharger (VGT) and an electric motor (EM) within the turbocharger bearing housing, where the EM is capable in bi-directional power transfer. The VGT, EM, and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve all impact the dynamics of air path. In this paper, the dynamics in an electrified turbocharged diesel engine (ETDE), especially the couplings between different loops in the air path is analyzed. Furthermore, an explicit principle in selecting control variables is proposed. Based on the analysis, a model-based multi-input multi-output (MIMO) decoupling controller is designed to regulate the air path dynamics.
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