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Technical Paper

Performance and Exhaust Emission Evaluation of a Small Diesel Engine Fuelled with Coconut Oil Methyl Esters

1998-02-23
981156
Renewable sources of energy need to be developed to fulfill future energy demands in areas such as the Maldives where traditional sources of raw materials are limited or non-existent. This paper explores the use of an alternative fuel derived from coconut oil that can be produced in the Maldives and can be used in place of diesel fuel. The main advantage of this particular fuel is that it is a highly saturated oil with a calorific value close to standard diesel fuel. The viscosity of the crude coconut oil is much higher than standard diesel fuel. To reduce the viscosity and to make the oil more suitable for conventional diesel engines methyl esters were produced using the transesterification process (1). The engine performed well on the coconut oil methyl esters although there was a small reduction in power consistent with the lower calorific value of the alternative fuel. Comparative performance data together with the emission levels for the two fuels are presented.
Technical Paper

Analysis of a Novel Method for Low-Temperature Ammonia Production Using DEF for Mobile Selective Catalytic Reduction Systems

2018-04-03
2018-01-0333
The worldwide introduction of new emission standards and new, more encompassing, legislating cycles have led to a need to increase both a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system’s capacity and conversion efficiency. To this end, it is important for an SCR system to operate to the extremes of its temperature range which in many systems is currently limited by the temperature at which diesel exhaust fluid (DEF) can easily decompose without the formation of deposits. This paper analyses a new system for low-temperature ammonia provision to the SCR reaction. Ammonia Creation and Conversion Technology (ACCT) uses pressure controlled thermal decomposition of DEF followed by re-formation to form a fluid with greater volatility and the same ammonia density as DEF conforming to ISO 22241. A dosing strategy can then be employed where any combination of DEF or ACCT solution can be used to provide ammonia as a reductant over the whole activity temperature range of a catalyst.
Technical Paper

Analytical Evaluation of Fitted Piston Compression Ring: Modal Behaviour and Frictional Assessment

2011-05-17
2011-01-1535
Piston compression rings are thin, incomplete circular structures which are subject to complex motions during a typical 4-stroke internal combustion engine cycle. Ring dynamics comprises its inertial motion relative to the piston, within the confine of its seating groove. There are also elastodynamic modes, such as the ring in-plane motions. A number of modes can be excited, dependent on the net applied force. The latter includes the ring tension and cylinder pressure loading, both of which act outwards on the ring and conform it to the cylinder bore. There is also the radial inward force as the result of ring-bore conjunctional pressure (i.e. contact force). Under transient conditions, the inward and outward forces do not equilibrate, resulting in the small inertial radial motion of the ring.
Technical Paper

Prediction of NOx Emissions of a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine with a NLARX Model

2009-11-02
2009-01-2796
This work describes the application of Non-Linear Autoregressive Models with Exogenous Inputs (NLARX) in order to predict the NOx emissions of heavy-duty diesel engines. Two experiments are presented: 1.) a Non-Road-Transient-Cycle (NRTC) 2.) a composition of different engine operation modes and different engine calibrations. Data sets are pre-processed by normalization and re-arranged into training and validation sets. The chosen model is taken from the MATLAB Neural Network Toolbox using the algorithms provided. It is teacher forced trained and then validated. Training results show recognizable performance. However, the validation shows the potential of the chosen method.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Free Stream Turbulence on A-pillar Airflow

2009-04-20
2009-01-0003
Various studies have shown that the level of wind noise experienced inside cars on the road in unsteady conditions can be substantially different from that measured in wind tunnel tests conducted using a low turbulence facility. In this paper a simple geometric body representing the cabin of a passenger car has been used to investigate the effects of free stream turbulence, (FST), on the A-pillar vortex flowfield and the side glass pressure distribution. Beneath the A-pillar vortex, both mean and dynamic pressures are increased by FST. The unsteady pressure can be associated with wind noise and the flow visualization shows the peak unsteadiness is related to the separation of the secondary vortex.
Technical Paper

Multi-Zone Kinetic Model of Controlled Auto Ignition Combustion

2009-04-20
2009-01-0673
A multi-zone Controlled Auto Ignition (CAI) model for simulating the combustion and emissions has been developed and reported in this paper. The model takes into account the effects of the boundary layer, crevice volume, and blowby. In order to investigate the influences of in-cylinder inhomogeneity, the main cylinder chamber has been divided into multiple core zones with varying temperature and composition. Mass and energy transfer between neighbouring zones were modeled. A reduced chemical kinetic mechanism was implemented in each zone to simulate the CAI combustion chemistry and emission formation. An in-house code, the LUCKS (Loughborough University Chemical Kinetics Simulation), was employed to solve the coupled differential equations of the system. The model was validated against experimental results at various Internal Exhaust Gas Recirculation (IEGR) levels and was then used to analyze the thermal and chemical effect of the IEGR on the CAI combustion.
Technical Paper

BSFC Investigation Using Variable Valve Timing in a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-1525
Variable valve actuation in heavy duty diesel engines is not well documented, because of diesel engine feature, such as, unthrottled air handling, which gives little room to improve pumping loss; a very high compression ratio, which makes the clearance between the piston and valve small at the top dead center. In order to avoid strike the piston while maximizing the valve movement scope, different strategies are adopted in this paper: (1) While exhaust valve closing is fixed, exhaust valve opening is changed; (2) While exhaust valve closing is fixed, late exhaust valve opening: (3) While inlet valve opening is fixed, inlet valve closing is changed; (4) Delayed Inlet valve and exhaust valve openings and closings; (5) Changing exhaust valve timing; (6) changing inlet valve timing; (7) Changing both inlet and exhaust timing, will be used.
Technical Paper

The Potential of Fuel Metering Control for Optimising Unburned Hydrocarbon Emissions in Diesel Low Temperature Combustion

2013-04-08
2013-01-0894
Low temperature combustion (LTC) in diesel engines offers attractive benefits through simultaneous reduction of nitrogen oxides and soot. However, it is known that the in-cylinder conditions typical of LTC operation tend to produce high emissions of unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) and carbon monoxide (CO), reducing combustion efficiency. The present study develops from the hypothesis that this characteristic poor combustion efficiency is due to in-cylinder mixture preparation strategies that are non-optimally matched to the requirements of the LTC combustion mode. In this work, the effects of three key fuel path parameters - injection fuel quantity ratio, dwell and injection timing - on CO and HC emissions were examined using a Central Composite Design (CCD) Design of Experiments (DOE) method.
Technical Paper

Non-Thermal Particulate Filter Regeneration Using Rapid Pulse Electric Discharges

2013-04-08
2013-01-0518
This research introduces a new, novel approach to reverse flow particulate filter regeneration enabled by rapidly pulsed electric discharges. The discharges physically dislodge particulate matter (PM) from the filter substrate and allow a very low reverse air flow to transport it to a soot handling system. The system is operable independent of filter temperature, does not expose the filter to high thermal stresses or temperatures, has no apparent upper limit for filter PM-mass level (regeneration of a filter up to 17 g/L has been demonstrated), and does not require any catalyst. The system is inherently scalable allowing application to monolithic filters of any size or shape and can be tailored to suit specific application requirements such as limits on maximum regeneration time or power consumption. For example a light duty application would require as little as 200-500W electrical power to regenerate a filter in less than ten minutes (i.e. passenger car GPF or DPF).
Technical Paper

The Impact of Underbody Roughness on Rear Wake Structure of a Squareback Vehicle

2013-04-08
2013-01-0463
In this paper the effects of a rough underbody on the rear wake structure of a simplified squareback model (the Windsor model) is investigated using balance measurements, base pressure measurements and two and three component planar PIV. The work forms part of a larger study to develop understanding of the mechanisms that influence overall base pressure and hence the resulting aerodynamic drag. In the work reported in this paper the impact of a rough underbody on the base pressure and wake flow structures is quantified at three different ground clearances. The underbody roughness has been created through the addition of five roughness strips to the underbody of the model and the effects on the wake at ground clearances of 10.3%, 17.3% and 24.2% of the model height are assessed. All work has been carried out in the Loughborough University Large Wind Tunnel with a ¼ scale model giving a blockage ratio of 4.4% for a smooth under-body or 4.5% with the maximum thickness roughness strips.
Technical Paper

Comparison between Unthrottled, Single and Two-valve Induction Strategies Utilising Direct Gasoline Injection: Emissions, Heat-release and Fuel Consumption Analysis

2008-06-23
2008-01-1626
For a spark-ignition engine, the parasitic loss suffered as a result of conventional throttling has long been recognised as a major reason for poor part-load fuel efficiency. While lean, stratified charge, operation addresses this issue, exhaust gas aftertreatment is more challenging compared with homogeneous operation and three-way catalyst after-treatment. This paper adopts a different approach: homogeneous charge direct injection (DI) operation with variable valve actuations which reduce throttling losses. In particular, low-lift and early inlet valve closing (EIVC) strategies are investigated. Results from a thermodynamic single cylinder engine are presented that quantify the effect of two low-lift camshafts and one standard high-lift camshaft operating EIVC strategies at four engine running conditions; both, two- and single-inlet valve operation were investigated. Tests were conducted for both port and DI fuelling, under stoichiometric conditions.
Technical Paper

Towards an Open Source Model for Engine Control Systems

2008-06-23
2008-01-1711
Traditionally, university research in engine technology has been focused on fundamental engine phenomena. Increasingly however, research topics are developing in the form of systems issues. Examples include air and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) management, after-treatment systems, engine cooling, hybrid systems and energy recovery. This trend leads to the need for engine research to be conducted using currently available products and components that are re-configured or incrementally improved to support a particular research investigation. A production engine will include an electronic control unit (ECU) that must be understood and utilised or simply removed and circumvented. In general the intellectual property (IP) limitations places on ECUs by their suppliers mean that they cannot be used. The supplier of the ECU is usually unable to reveal any detail of the implementation. As a consequence any research using production hardware is seriously disadvantaged from the beginning.
Technical Paper

Explicit Model Predictive Control of the Diesel Engine Fuel Path

2012-04-16
2012-01-0893
For diesel engines, fuel path control plays a key role in achieving optimal emissions and fuel economy performance. There are several fuel path parameters that strongly affect the engine performance by changing the combustion process, by modifying for example, start of injection and fuel rail pressure. This is a multi-input multi-output problem. Linear Model Predictive Control (MPC) is a good approach for such a system with optimal solution. However, fuel path has fast dynamics. On-line optimisation MPC is not the good choice to cope with such fast dynamics. Explicit MPC uses off-line optimisation, therefore, it can be used to control the system with fast dynamics.
Technical Paper

The Value of Component in the Loop Approaches to Exhaust Energy Management in Hybrid Vehicles

2012-04-16
2012-01-1024
Recent work on thermo-electric (TE) systems has highlighted the need for refined heat transfer design as well as the long standing need for improved materials performance. Recent work on heat transfer for TE systems has shown that enhanced heat transfer is needed over and above what would normally be seen in a vehicle exhaust system. In particular a better understanding of flow development and boundary layer behaviour is needed to support new design proposals. In the meantime, recent work in TE materials suggests that with the use of skutterudites significant performance benefits can accrue over existing materials. The current generation of TE materials have non-dimensional thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) values of around 1. Skutterudites have been demonstrated to have ZT values of about 1.4 and can maintain these values over a wider temperature range than do existing materials through the engineering of the TE device.
Technical Paper

Optical Diagnostics and CFD Validation of Jacket Cooling System Filling and the Occurrence of Trapped Air

2012-04-16
2012-01-1213
This paper reports the findings from an experimental investigation of the engine cooling jacket filling process for a medium duty off-highway diesel engine to characterise the physical processes that lead to the occurrence of trapped air. The motivation for the project was to provide knowledge and data to aid the development of a computational design tool capable of predicting the amount and location of trapped air in a cooling circuit following a fill event. To quantify the coolant filling process, a transparent replica of a section of the cylinder head cooling core was manufactured from acrylic to allow the application of optical diagnostic techniques. Experimentation has characterised the coolant filling process through the use of three optical techniques. These include the two established methods of High-Speed Imaging and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), as well as a novel approach developed for tracking the liquid-air interface during the fill event.
Technical Paper

Challenges and Potential of Intra-Cycle Combustion Control for Direct Injection Diesel Engines

2012-04-16
2012-01-1158
The injection timing of a Diesel internal combustion engine typically follows a prescribed sequence depending on the operating condition using open loop control. Due to advances in sensors and digital electronics it is now possible to implement closed loop control based on in cylinder pressure values. Typically this control action is slow, and it may take several cycles or at least one cycle (cycle-to-cycle control). Using high speed sensors, it becomes technically possible to measure pressure deviations and correct them within the same cycle (intra-cycle control). For example the in cylinder pressure after the pilot inject can be measured, and the timing of the main injection can be adjusted in timing and duration to compensate any deviations in pressure from the expected reference value. This level of control can significantly reduce the deviations between cycles and cylinders, and it can also improve the transient behavior of the engine.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Flow Structure Analysis by Particle Image Velocimetry Under Steady State Condition

2012-09-24
2012-01-1975
This paper deals with experimental investigations of the in-cylinder flow structures under steady state conditions utilizing Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The experiments have been conducted on an engine head of a pent-roof type (Lotus) for a number of fixed valve lifts and different inlet valve configurations at two pressure drops, 250mm and 635mm of H2O that correlate with engine speeds of 2500 and 4000 RPM respectively. From the two-dimensional in-cylinder flow measurements, a tumble flow analysis is carried out for six planes parallel to the cylinder axis. In addition, a swirl flow analysis is carried out for one horizontal plane perpendicular to the cylinder axis at half bore downstream from the cylinder head (44mm). The results show the advantage of using the planar technique (PIV) for investigating the complete flow structures developed inside the cylinder.
Technical Paper

Optical Investigation on the Ability of a Cordierite Substrate Mixing Device to Combat Deposits in SCR Dosing Systems

2015-04-14
2015-01-1039
Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) has become the mainstream approach for removing heavy-duty (HD) diesel engine NOx emissions. Highly efficient SCR systems are a key enabling technology allowing engines to be calibrated for very high NOx output with a resultant gain in fuel consumption while still maintaining NOx emissions compliance. One key to the successful implementation of high efficiency SCR at elevated engine out NOx levels is the ability to introduce significantly more AdBlue into the exhaust flow while still ensuring complete ammonia production and avoiding the formation of deposits. This paper presents a body of experimental work conducted on an exhaust test bench using optical techniques including high-speed imaging and phase Doppler interferometry (PDI), applied under representative exhaust conditions to a HD diesel engine after-treatment system with optical access inside the mixer tube. Two different sprays were used to dose AdBlue onto the mixing device.
Technical Paper

An Optical Analysis of a DISI Engine Cold Start-Up Strategy

2015-09-01
2015-01-1877
Particulate number (PN) standards in the current ‘Euro 6’ European emissions standards pose a challenge for engine designers and calibrators during the warm-up phases of cold direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engines. To achieve catalyst light-off in the shortest time, engine strategies are often employed which inherently use more fuel to attain higher exhaust temperatures. This can lead to the generation of locally fuel-rich regions within the combustion chamber and the emission of particulates. This investigation analyses the combustion structures during the transient start-up phase of an optical DISI engine. High-speed, colour 9 kHz imaging was used to investigate five important operating points of an engine start-up strategy whilst simultaneously recording in-cylinder pressure.
Technical Paper

The Characterisation of a Centrifugal Separator for Engine Cooling Systems

2015-04-14
2015-01-1693
It is an engineering requirement that gases entrained in the coolant flow of an engine must be removed to retain cooling performance, while retaining a volume of gas in the header tank for thermal expansion and pressure control. The main gases present are air from filling the system, exhaust emissions from leakage across the head gasket, and also coolant vapour. These gases reduce the performance of the coolant pump and lower the heat transfer coefficient of the fluid. This is due to the reduction in the mass fraction of liquid coolant and the change in fluid turbulence. The aim of the research work contained within this paper was to analyse an existing phase separator using CFD and physical testing to assist in the design of an efficient phase separator.
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