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Technical Paper

A Copper-Lead Bearing Corrosion Test Replacement

The Cooperative Lubrication Research (CLR) Oil Test Engine, usually called the L-38, has been used for nearly 25 years to evaluate copper-lead journal bearing protection of gasoline rnotoroils under high-temperature, heavy-duty conditions. The test is sensitive to aggressive surface active additives that may encourage bearing corrosion. The L-38 also provides an estimate of oil durability, assessing the resistance of an oil to the accumulation of acidic by-products of combustion that could attack copper-lead bearings. However, the L-38 engine dynamometer test uses a heavily leaded gasoline that is no longer representative of the commercial fuels available in North America, Europe, or Japan. Rather than discard the L-38, this paper describes work to modify the L-38 procedure to run with unleaded gasoline.
Technical Paper

ATF Nylon Degradation

Nylon is used as a material in the design of various components of automatic transmissions. Pump rotor guides and thrust washers are among components designed from nylon. Nylon must be compatible with automatic transmission fluid (ATF). An immersion test using nylon strips in various test fluids was developed. The nylon color change was independent of the physical properties (as measured by change of tensile force) of the material. Testing indicated that nylon color change is catalyzed by oxidation effects, and the change in tensile strength is related to thermal degradation. An automatic transmission fluid (ATF) containing calcium sulfonate detergent showed better oxidation resistance and caused less loss of tensile strength in nylon 6 (PA6).
Technical Paper

Fundamental Studies on ATF Friction I.

Automatic transmission clutches are complex tribological systems. Frictional performance is controlled by the interaction of base fluids, additive components, composition clutches, and steel reaction plates with varying energy inputs and thermal stresses in an oxidizing environment. This paper, rather than addressing fully formulated fluid performance in such a system, takes a more fundamental approach where the number of system variables is reduced and the relative effects of formulation variables on system performance can be better examined. Relationships among observed friction performance, system oxidation, friction member condition, and representative performance additives are explored using a synthetic base fluid and a conventionally refined mineral base fluid.
Technical Paper

Development of a Laboratory Hypoid Gear Spalling Test

The laboratory tests used to define API GL5 have been the cornerstone of gear oil development for well over thirty years. In that time they have served the market very well. Lubricants developed with these test methods have provided adequate protection of axle components from severe wear, scuffing, corrosion, and oxidation. Recently, however, there has been an increasing trend toward extended drain intervals which changes the picture. Coupled with longer oil drain intervals there is a continuing increase of power throughput in the equipment. The combination of increased power and extended service life places significant stress on the oil such that the load carrying ability and thermal and oxidative stability could be greatly diminished under these conditions. During the past ten years the industry has been actively working toward a new gear oil specification that will address the performance needs of today's vehicles.
Technical Paper

Improved Lubricants Extend Diesel Engine Life

Diesel engine oils containing a balanced additive package composed of oxidation, corrosion, wear, rust and foam inhibitors plus ashless dispersants and metallic detergents provide long engine life. The major factor is metallic detergent component which contributes alkalinity to the oil and has a direct effect on engine cleanliness and durability. Increased detergent alkalinity reduces deposits and wear, resulting in improved oil control and longer engine life. Careful selection of detergent components is required to control cylinder-bore polishing in diesel engines to assure optimum antiwear and oil control performance.