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Technical Paper

Wavelet Analysis of In-Cylinder LDV Measurements and Correlation Against Heat-Release

1998-02-23
980483
Wavelet analysis was used to calculate turbulence and mean velocity levels for LDV measurements made in a four valve spark ignition engine. Five different camshafts were tested, and they produce significantly different flow behaviour. The standard cam gives tumble and with valve deactivation, swirl is produced. One camshaft with early inlet valve closing and two camshafts with late inlet valve closing were also tested. The wavelet toolbox for Matlab version 5.1 has been used for the wavelet calculations. The wavelet technique produces both time resolved and frequency resolved velocity information. The results indicate some influence of the turbulence frequency content on the rate of heat release. Correlation against heat-release can be seen for different scales of turbulence. The breakdown of the tumble (low frequency turbulence) into high frequency turbulence can be seen clearly.
Technical Paper

Particle Image Velocimetry Flow Measurements and Heat-Release Analysis in a Cross-Flow Cylinder Head

2002-10-21
2002-01-2840
A specially designed cylinder head, enabling unthrottled operation with a standard cam-phasing mechanism, was tested in an optical single-cylinder engine. The in-cylinder flow was measured with particle image velocimetry (PIV) and the results were compared with heat release and emission measurements. The article also discusses effects of residual gas and effective compression ratio on heat-release and emissions. The special design of the cylinder head, with one inlet and one exhaust valve per camshaft, made it possible to operate the engine unthrottled at part load. Cam phasing led to late inlet valve closing, but also to increased valve overlap. The exhaust valve closing was late in the intake stroke, resulting in high amounts of residual gases. Two different camshafts were used with late inlet valve closing. One of the camshafts had shorter valve open duration on the phased exhaust cam lobe.
Technical Paper

Load Control Using Late Intake Valve Closing in a Cross Flow Cylinder Head

2001-09-24
2001-01-3554
A newly developed cross flow cylinder head has been used for comparison between throttled and unthrottled operation using late intake valve closing. Pressure measurements have been used for calculations of indicated load and heat-release. Emission measurements has also been made. A model was used for estimating the amount of residual gases resulting from the different load strategies. Unthrottled operation using late intake valve closing resulted in lower pumping losses, but also in increased amounts of residual gases, using this cylinder head. This is due to the special design, with one intake valve and one exhaust valve per camshaft. Late intake valve closing was achieved by phasing one of the camshafts, resulting in late exhaust valve closing as well. With very late phasing - i.e. low load - the effective compression ratio was reduced. This, in combination with high amount of residual gases, resulted in a very unstable combustion.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Valve Strategy on In-Cylinder Flow and Combustion

1996-02-01
960582
This study is focused on the effect of different valve strategies on the in-cylinder flow and combustion A conventional four-valve pentroof engine was modified to enable optical access to the combustion chamber To get information on the flow, a two-component LDV system was applied The combustion was monitored by the use of cylinder pressure in a one-zone heat release model The results show that the flow in the cylinder with the valves operating in the standard configuration has an expected tumble characteristic In this case the high frequency turbulence is homogeneous and has a peak approximately 20 CAD BTDC With one valve deactivated, the flow shows a swirling pattern The turbulence is then less homogeneous but the level of turbulence is increased When the single inlet valve was phased late against the crankshaft dramatic effects on the flow resulted The late inlet valve opening introduced a low cylinder pressure before the valve opened The high pressure difference across the valve introduced a high-velocity jet into the cylinder Turbulence was increased by a factor of two by this operational mode When two inlet valves were used, a reduction of turbulence resulted from a very late inlet cam phase
Technical Paper

Fluid Flow, Combustion and Efficiency with Early or Late Inlet Valve Closing

1997-10-01
972937
This paper is a study of the effects of valve timing and how it influences the in-cylinder fluid flow, the combustion, and the efficiency of the engine. An engine load of 4.0 bar imepnet was achieved by setting the inlet valve closing time early or late to enable unthrottled operation. Inlet valve deactivation was also used and asymmetrical valve timing, i.e. valve timing with the two inlet valves opening and closing at different times. The valve timing was altered by switching cam lobes between the experiments. The results indicate a longer flame development period but a faster combustion with early inlet valve closing compared to the throttled case. For late inlet valve closing, a variation in the combustion duration results. As expected, the pumping mean effective pressure (PMEP) was greatly reduced with early and late inlet valve closing compared to the throttled case.
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