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Technical Paper

High-Speed LIF Imaging for Cycle-Resolved Formaldehyde Visualization in HCCI Combustion

High-speed laser diagnostics was utilized for single-cycle resolved studies of the formaldehyde distribution in the combustion chamber of an HCCI engine. A multi-YAG laser system consisting of four individual Q-switched, flash lamp-pumped Nd:YAG lasers has previously been developed in order to obtain laser pulses at 355 nm suitable for performing LIF measurements of the formaldehyde molecule. Bursts of up to eight pulses with very short time separation can be produced, allowing capturing of LIF image series with high temporal resolution. The system was used together with a high-speed framing camera employing eight intensified CCD modules, with a frame-rate matching the laser pulse repetition rate. The diagnostic system was used to study the combustion in a truck-size HCCI engine, running at 1200 rpm using n-heptane as fuel. By using laser pulses with time separations as short as 70 μs, cycle-resolved image sequences of the formaldehyde distribution were obtained.
Technical Paper

Optical Diagnostics Applied to a Naturally Aspirated Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine

Basic optical properties have been investigated in order to characterize the HCCI-combustion process. Basic optical properties of a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine have been investigated in order to characterize the combustion process. The absorption of light propagating through the combustion chamber has been spectrally resolved for four different fuels. Significant differences between the fuels could be detected. Complementary information could be obtained by recording spontaneous emission of radiation during combustion. Raman point measurements were used to quantify cycle-to-cycle variations of the equivalence ratio. The homogeneity of the charge was monitored by the use of two-dimensional tracer LIF. That method was also utilized to investigate the flame development. The experiments were performed in a six-cylinder, truck-sized engine with one cylinder modified to allow for optical access.
Technical Paper

Development of High Speed Spectroscopic Imaging Techniques for the Time Resolved Study of Spark Ignition Phenomena

This paper reports on the development of novel time resolved spectroscopic imaging techniques for the study of spark ignition phenomena in combustion cells and an SI-engine. The techniques are based on planar laser induced fluorescence imaging (PLIF) of OH radicals, on fuel tracer PLIF, and on chemiluminescence. The techniques could be achieved at repetition rates reaching several hundreds of kilo-Hz and were cycle resolved. These techniques offer a new path along which engine related diagnostics can be undertaken, providing a wealth of information on turbulent spark ignition.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Fuel Distribution and the In-cylinder Flow Field in a Stratified Charge Engine Using Laser Techniques and Comparison with CFD-Modelling

This paper presents an investigation of a Volvo Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI) engine, where the fuel distribution and the in-cylinder flow field have been mapped by the use of laser techniques in an engine with optical access. Along with the experimental work, CFD-modelling of flow and fuel distribution has been performed. Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) visualisation of the fuel distribution in a DI-engine has been performed using an endoscopic detection system. Due to the complex piston crown geometry it was not possible to monitor the critical area around the sparkplug with conventional, through the piston, detection. Therefore, an endoscope inserted in the spark plug hole was used. This approach gave an unrestricted view over the desired area. In addition, the in-cylinder flow fields have been monitored by Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) through cylinder and piston. The results from both the LIF and the PIV measurements have been compared with CFD-modelling at Volvo.