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Technical Paper

Styrofoam Precursors as Drop-in Diesel Fuel

2013-09-08
2013-24-0108
Styrene, or ethylbenzene, is mainly used as a monomer for the production of polymers, most notably Styrofoam. In the synthetis of styrene, the feedstock of benzene and ethylene is converted into aromatic oxygenates such as benzaldehyde, 2-phenyl ethanol and acetophenone. Benzaldehyde and phenyl ethanol are low value side streams, while acetophenone is a high value intermediate product. The side streams are now principally rejected from the process and burnt for process heat. Previous in-house research has shown that such aromatic oxygenates are suitable as diesel fuel additives and can in some cases improve the soot-NOx trade-off. In this study acetophenone, benzaldehyde and 2-phenyl ethanol are each added to commercial EN590 diesel at a ratio of 1:9, with the goal to ascertain whether or not the lower value benzaldehyde and 2-phenyl ethanol can perform on par with the higher value acetophenone. These compounds are now used in pure form.
Technical Paper

Injection of Fuel at High Pressure Conditions: LES Study

2011-09-11
2011-24-0041
This paper presents a large eddy simulation study of the liquid spray mixing with hot ambient gas in a constant volume vessel under engine-like conditions with the injection pressure of 1500 bar, ambient density 22.8 kg/m₃, ambient temperature of 900 K and an injector nozzle of 0.09 mm. The simulation results are compared with the experiments carried out by Pickett et al., under similar conditions. Under modern direct injection diesel engine conditions, it has been argued that the liquid core region is small and the droplets after atomization are fine so that the process of spray evaporation and mixing with the air is controlled by the heat and mass transfer between the ambient hot gas and central fuel flow. To examine this hypothesis a simple spray breakup model is tested in the present LES simulation. The simulations are performed using an open source compressible flow solver, in OpenFOAM.
Technical Paper

Influence of the Compression Ratio on the Performance and Emissions of a Mini HCCI Engine Fueled Ether with Diethyl

2007-10-29
2007-01-4075
Power supply systems play a very important role in applications of everyday life. Mainly, for low power generation, there are two ways of producing energy: electrochemical batteries and small engines. In the last few years many improvements have been carried out in order to obtain lighter batteries with longer duration but unfortunately the energy density of 1 MJ/kg seems to be an asymptotic value. If the energy source is an organic fuel with an energy density of around 29 MJ/kg and a minimum overall efficiency of only 3.5%, this device can surpass the batteries. Nowadays the most efficient combustion process is HCCI combustion which is able to combine high energy conversion efficiency and low emission levels with a very low fuel consumption. In this paper, an investigation has been carried out concerning the effects of the compression ratio on the performance and emissions of a mini, Vd = 4.11 [cm3], HCCI engine fueled with diethyl ether.
Technical Paper

Modelling Diesel Engine Combustion and NOx Formation for Model Based Control and Simulation of Engine and Exhaust Aftertreatment Systems

2006-04-03
2006-01-0687
Emissions standards are becoming increasingly harder to reach without the use of exhaust aftertreatment systems such as Selective Catalytic Reduction and particulate filters. In order to make efficient use of these systems it is important to have accurate models of engine-out emissions. Such models are also useful for optimizing and controlling next-generation engines without aftertreatment using for example exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Engines are getting more advanced using systems such as common rail fuel injection, variable geometry turbochargers (VGT) and EGR. With these new technologies and active control of the injection timing, more sophisticated models than simple stationary emission maps must be used to get adequate results. This paper is focused on the calculation of engine-out NOx and engine parameters such as cylinder pressure, temperature and gas flows.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Boundary Layer Behaviour in HCCI Combustion using Chemiluminescence Imaging

2005-10-24
2005-01-3729
A five-cylinder diesel engine, converted to a single cylinder operated optical engine is run in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) mode. A blend of iso-octane and n-heptane is used as fuel. An experimental study of the horizontal boundary layer between the main combustion and the non-reacting surface of the combustion chamber is conducted as a function of speed, load, swirl and injection strategy. The combustion behaviour is monitored by chemiluminescence measurements. For all cases an interval from -10 to 16 crank angles after top dead center (CAD ATDC) in steps of one CAD are studied. One image-intensified camera observes the boundary layer up close from the side through a quartz cylinder liner while a second camera has a more global view from below to see more large scale structure of the combustion. The averaged chemiluminescence intensity from the HCCI combustion is seen to scale well with the rate of heat release.
Technical Paper

Combustion Chamber Wall Temperature Measurement and Modeling During Transient HCCI Operation

2005-10-24
2005-01-3731
In this paper the combustion chamber wall temperature was measured by the use of thermographic phosphor. The temperature was monitored over a large time window covering a load transient. Wall temperature measurement provide helpful information in all engines. This temperature is for example needed when calculating heat losses to the walls. Most important is however the effect of the wall temperature on combustion. The walls can not heat up instantaneously and the slowly increasing wall temperature following a load transient will affect the combustion events sucseeding the transient. The HCCI combustion process is, due to its dependence on chemical kinetics more sensitive to wall temperature than Otto or Diesel engines. In depth knowledge about transient wall temperature could increase the understanding of transient HCCI control. A “black box” state space model was derived which is useful when predicting transient wall temperature.
Journal Article

UHC and CO Emissions Sources from a Light-Duty Diesel Engine Undergoing Dilution-Controlled Low-Temperature Combustion

2009-09-13
2009-24-0043
Unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emission sources are examined in an optical, light-duty diesel engine operating under low load and engine speed, while employing a highly dilute, partially premixed low-temperature combustion (LTC) strategy. The impact of engine load and charge dilution on the UHC and CO sources is also evaluated. The progression of in-cylinder mixing and combustion processes is studied using ultraviolet planar laser-induced fluorescence (UV PLIF) to measure the spatial distributions of liquid- and vapor-phase hydrocarbon. A separate, deep-UV LIF technique is used to examine the clearance volume spatial distribution and composition of late-cycle UHC and CO. Homogeneous reactor simulations, utilizing detailed chemical kinetics and constrained by the measured cylinder pressure, are used to examine the impact of charge dilution and initial stoichiometry on oxidation behavior.
Technical Paper

Fuel Injection and Mean Swirl Effects on Combustion and Soot Formation in Heavy Duty Diesel Engines

2007-04-16
2007-01-0912
High-speed video imaging in a swirl-supported (Rs = 1.7), direct-injection heavy-duty diesel engine operated with moderate-to-high EGR rates reveals a distinct correlation between the spatial distribution of luminous soot and mean flow vorticity in the horizontal plane. The temporal behavior of the experimental images, as well as the results of multi-dimensional numerical simulations, show that this soot-vorticity correlation is caused by the presence of a greater amount of soot on the windward side of the jet. The simulations indicate that while flow swirl can influence pre-ignition mixing processes as well as post-combustion soot oxidation processes, interactions between the swirl and the heat release can also influence mixing processes. Without swirl, combustion-generated gas flows influence mixing on both sides of the jet equally. In the presence of swirl, the heat release occurs on the leeward side of the fuel sprays.
Technical Paper

Detailed Heat Release Analyses with Regard to Combustion of RME and Oxygenated Fuels in an HSDI Diesel Engine

2007-04-16
2007-01-0627
Experiments on a modern DI Diesel engine were carried out: The engine was fuelled with standard Diesel fuel, RME and a mixture of 85% standard Diesel fuel, 5% RME and 10% higher alcohols under low load conditions (4 bar IMEP). During these experiments, different external EGR levels were applied while the injection timing was chosen in a way to keep the location of 50% heat release constant. Emission analysis results were in accordance with widely known correlations: Increasing EGR rates lowered NOx emissions. This is explained by a decrease of global air-fuel ratio entailing longer ignition delay. Local gas-fuel ratio increases during ignition delay and local combustion temperature is lowered. Exhaust gas analysis indicated further a strong increase of CO, PM and unburned HC emissions at high EGR levels. This resulted in lower combustion efficiency. PM emissions however, decreased above 50% EGR which was also in accordance with previously reported results.
Technical Paper

Variable Valve Actuation for Timing Control of a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine

2005-04-11
2005-01-0147
Autoignition of a homogeneous mixture is very sensitive to operating conditions. Therefore fast combustion phasing control is necessary for reliable operation. There are several means to control the combustion phasing of a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine. This paper presents cycle-to-cycle cylinder individual control results from a six-cylinder HCCI engine using a Variable Valve Actuation (VVA) system. As feedback signal, the crank angle for 50% burned, based on cylinder pressure, is used. Three control structures are evaluated, Model Predictive Control (MPC), Linear Quadratic Gaussian control (LQG) and PID control. In the control design of the MPC and LQG controller, dynamic models obtained by system identification were used. Successful experiments were performed on a port-injected six-cylinder heavy-duty Diesel engine operating in HCCI mode.
Technical Paper

Lean Burn Natural Gas Operation vs. Stoichiometric Operation with EGR and a Three Way Catalyst

2005-04-11
2005-01-0250
Exhaust Emissions from lean burn natural gas engines may not always be as low as the potential permits, especially engines with open loop lambda control. These engines can produce much higher emissions than a comparable diesel engine without exhaust gas after treatment. Even if the engine has closed loop lambda control, emissions are often unacceptably high for future emission regulations. A three way catalyst is, today, the best way to reduce hazardous emissions. The drawback is that the engine has to operate with a stoichiometric mixture and this leads to; higher heat losses, higher pumping work at low to medium loads, higher thermal stress on the engine and higher knock tendency (requiring lower compression ratio, and thus lower brake efficiency). One way to reduce these drawbacks is to dilute the stoichiometric mixture with EGR. This paper compares lean burn operation with operation at stoichiometric conditions diluted with EGR, and using a three way catalyst.
Technical Paper

Cycle-to-Cycle Control of a Dual-Fuel HCCI Engine

2004-03-08
2004-01-0941
A known problem of the HCCI engine is its lack of direct control and its requirements of feedback control. Today there exists several different means to control an HCCI engine, such as dual fuels, variable valve actuation, inlet temperature and compression ratio. Independent of actuation method a sensor is needed. In this paper we perform closed-loop control based on two different sensors, pressure and ion current sensor. Results showing that they give similar control performance within their operating range are presented. Also a comparison of two methods of designing HCCI timing controller, manual tuning and model based design is presented. A PID controller is used as an example of a manually tuned controller. A Linear Quadratic Gaussian controller exemplifies model based controller design. The models used in the design were estimated using system identification methods. The system used in this paper performs control on cycle-to-cycle basis. This leads to fast and robust control.
Technical Paper

Piston Temperature Measurement by Use of Thermographic Phosphors and Thermocouples in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Run Under Partly Premixed Conditions

2005-04-11
2005-01-1646
Piston temperature experiments were conducted in a single-cylinder heavy-duty Diesel research engine, based on the Volvo Powertrain D12C engine both by use of optical temperature sensitive phosphor and of thermocouples mounted on the piston surface. In the former case, a thin coating of a suitable thermographic phosphor was applied to the areas on the piston surface to be investigated. The optical measurements of piston temperatures made involved use of an optical window and of an endoscope. The possibility of using optical fibres into guide light in and out of the engine was also investigated. Results of the optical and of the thermocouple measurements were compared and were also related to more global data with the aim of exploring the use of thermographic phosphors for piston- temperature measurements in Diesel engines. Thermographic phosphors thermometry was found to represent an alternative to the thermocouple method since it easily can be applied to various piston geometries.
Technical Paper

Concurrent Quantitative Laser-Induced Incandescence and SMPS Measurements of EGR Effects on Particulate Emissions from a TDI Diesel Engine

2002-10-21
2002-01-2715
A comparison of scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and laser-induced incandescence (LII) measurements of diesel particulate matter (PM) was performed. The results reveal the significance of the aggregate nature of diesel PM on interpretation of size and volume fraction measurements obtained with an SMPS, and the accuracy of primary particle size measurements by LII. Volume fraction calculations based on the mobility diameter measured by the SMPS substantially over-predict the space-filling volume fraction of the PM. Correction algorithms for the SMPS measurements, to account for the fractal nature of the aggregate morphology, result in a substantial reduction in the reported volume. The behavior of the particulate volume fraction, mean and standard deviation of the mobility diameter, and primary particle size are studied as a function of the EGR for a range of steady-state engine speeds and loads for a turbocharged direct-injection diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Early Swedish Hot-Bulb Engines - Efficiency and Performance Compared to Contemporary Gasoline and Diesel Engines

2002-03-04
2002-01-0115
“Hot Bulb engines” was the popular name of the early direct injected 2-stroke oil engine, invented and patented by Carl W. Weiss 1897. This paper covers engines of this design, built under license in Sweden by various manufacturers. The continuous development is demonstrated through examples of different combustion chamber designs. The material is based on official engine performance evaluations on stationary engines and farm tractors from 1899 to 1995 made by the National Machinery Testing Institute in Sweden (SMP). Hot-bulb, diesel and spark ignited engines are compared regarding efficiency, brake mean effective pressure and specific power (power per displaced volume). The evaluated hot-bulb engines had a fairly good efficiency, well matching the contemporary diesel engines. At low mean effective pressures, the efficiency of the hot-bulb engines was even better than that of subsequent diesel engines.
Technical Paper

Demonstrating the Multi Fuel Capability of a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine with Variable Compression Ratio

1999-10-25
1999-01-3679
The potential of a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine with variable compression ratio has been experimentally investigated. The experiments were carried out in a single cylinder engine, equipped with a modified cylinder head. Altering the position of a secondary piston in the cylinder head enabled a change of the compression ratio. The secondary piston was controlled by a hydraulic system, which was operated from the control room. Dual port injection systems were used, which made it possible to change the ratio of two different fuels with the engine running. By mixing iso-octane with octane number 100 and normal heptane with octane number 0, it was possible to obtain any octane rating between 0 and 100. By using an electrical heater for the inlet air, it was possible to adjust the inlet air temperature to a selected value.
Technical Paper

A Simple Approach to Studying the Relation between Fuel Rate Heat Release Rate and NO Formation in Diesel Engines

1999-10-25
1999-01-3548
Modern diesel engine injection systems are largely computer controlled. This opens the door for tailoring the fuel rate. Rate shaping in combination with increased injection pressure and nozzle design will play an important role in the efforts to maintain the superiority of the diesel engine in terms of fuel economy while meeting future demands on emissions. This approach to studying the potential of rate shaping in order to reduce NO formation is based on three sub-models. The first model calculates the fuel rate by using standard expressions for calculating the areas of the dimensioning flow paths in the nozzle and the corresponding discharge coefficients. In the second sub-model the heat release rate is described as a function of available fuel energy, i.e. fuel mass, in the cylinder. The third submodel is the multizone combustion model that calculates NO for a given heat release rate under assumed air /fuel ratios.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Heat Release and NOx Formation in a DI Diesel Engine Running on DME and Diesel Fuel

2001-03-05
2001-01-0651
Although there seems to be a consensus regarding the low emission potential of DME, there are still different opinions about why the low NOx emissions can be obtained without negative effects on thermal efficiency. Possible explanations are: The physical properties of DME affecting the spray and the mixture formation Different shape and duration of the heat release in combination with reduced heat losses In this paper an attempt is made to increase the knowledge of DME in relation to diesel fuel with respect to heat release and NOx formation. The emphasis has been to create injection conditions as similar as possible for both fuels. For that purpose the same injection system (CR), injection pressure (270 bar), injection timing and duration have been used for the two fuels. The only differences were the diameters of the nozzle holes, which were chosen to give the same fuel energy supply, and the physical properties of the fuels.
Technical Paper

Qualitative Laser-Induced Incandescence Measurements of Particulate Emissions During Transient Operation of a TDI Diesel Engine

2001-09-24
2001-01-3574
Laser-induced incandescence (LII) is a sensitive diagnostic technique capable of making exhaust particulate-matter measurements during transient operating conditions. This paper presents measurements of LII signals obtained from the exhaust gas of a 1.9-L TDI diesel engine. A scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) is used in fixed-size mode to obtain simultaneous number concentration measurements in real-time. The transient studies presented include a cranking-start/idle/shutdown sequence, on/off cycling of EGR, and rapid load changes. The results show superior temporal response of LII compared to the SMPS. Additional advantages of LII are that exhaust dilution and cooling are not required, and that the signal amplitude is directly proportional to the carbon volume fraction and its temporal decay is related to the primary particle size.
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