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Technical Paper

Supercharged Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) with Exhaust Gas Recirculation and Pilot Fuel

2000-06-19
2000-01-1835
In an attempt to extend the upper load limit for Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), supercharging in combination with Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) have been applied. Two different boost pressures were used, 1.1 bar and 1.5 bar. High EGR rates were used in order to reduce the combustion rate. The highest obtained IMEP was 16 bar. This was achieved with the higher boost pressure, at close to stoichiometric conditions and with approximately 50 % EGR. Natural gas was used as the main fuel. In the case with the higher boost pressure, iso-octane was used as pilot fuel, to improve the ignition properties of the mixture. This made it possible to use a lower compression ratio and thereby reducing the maximum cylinder pressure. The tests were performed on a single cylinder engine operated at low speed (1000 rpm). The test engine was equipped with a modified cylinder head, having a Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) mechanism.
Technical Paper

Cylinder to Cylinder and Cycle to Cycle Variations in a Six Cylinder Lean Burn Natural Gas Engine

2000-06-19
2000-01-1941
The cylinder to cylinder and cycle to cycle variations were measured in a production type Volvo natural gas engine. Cylinder pressure was measured in all six cylinders. Emission measurements were performed individually after all cylinders, and commonly after the turbocharger. Measurements (ECE R49 13-mode) were performed with different spark gap and two different locations for fuel injection, one before the throttle and one before the turbocharger. Heat-release and lambda calculations show substantial cylinder to cylinder variations, due to lambda variations between the cylinders. The slow burn combustion chamber, with low turbulence, results in high cycle to cycle variations (> 100% COV imep) for some of the load cases.
Technical Paper

Effect of Inhomogeneities in the End Gas Temperature Field on the Autoignition in SI Engines

2000-03-06
2000-01-0954
This paper reports an one–dimensional modeling procedure of the hot spot autoignition with a detailed chemistry and multi–species transport in the end gas in an SI engine. The governing equations for continuity of mass, momentum, energy and species for an one–dimensional, unsteady, compressible, laminar, reacting flow and thermal fields are discretized and solved by a fully implicit method. A chemical kinetic mechanism is used for the primary reference fuels n–heptane and iso–octane. This mechanism contains 510 chemical reactions and 75 species. The change of the cylinder pressure is calculated from both flame propagation and piston movement. The turbulent velocity of the propagating flame is modeled by the Wiebe function. Adiabatic conditions, calculated by minimizing Gibb's free energy at each time step, are assumed behind the flame front in the burned gas.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Heat Release and NOx Formation in a DI Diesel Engine Running on DME and Diesel Fuel

2001-03-05
2001-01-0651
Although there seems to be a consensus regarding the low emission potential of DME, there are still different opinions about why the low NOx emissions can be obtained without negative effects on thermal efficiency. Possible explanations are: The physical properties of DME affecting the spray and the mixture formation Different shape and duration of the heat release in combination with reduced heat losses In this paper an attempt is made to increase the knowledge of DME in relation to diesel fuel with respect to heat release and NOx formation. The emphasis has been to create injection conditions as similar as possible for both fuels. For that purpose the same injection system (CR), injection pressure (270 bar), injection timing and duration have been used for the two fuels. The only differences were the diameters of the nozzle holes, which were chosen to give the same fuel energy supply, and the physical properties of the fuels.
Technical Paper

Laser-Rayleigh Imaging of DME Sprays in an Optically Accessible DI Diesel Truck Engine

2001-03-05
2001-01-0915
Laser-Rayleigh imaging has been employed to measure the relative fuel concentration in the gaseous jet region of DME sprays. The measurements were performed in an optically accessible diesel truck engine equipped with a common rail injection system. A one-hole nozzle was used to guarantee that the recorded pressure history was associated with the heat release in the imaged spray. To compensate for the low compression ratio in the modified engine the inlet air was preheated. Spray development was studied for two levels of preheating, from the start of injection to the point where all fuel was consumed. The results indicate that there is a strong correlation between the amount of unburned fuel present in the cylinder and the rate of heat release at a given time. The combustion can not be described as purely premixed or purely mixing-controlled at any time, but always has an element of both. After all fuel appears to have vanished there is still an extended period of heat release.
Technical Paper

Development of High Speed Spectroscopic Imaging Techniques for the Time Resolved Study of Spark Ignition Phenomena

2000-10-16
2000-01-2833
This paper reports on the development of novel time resolved spectroscopic imaging techniques for the study of spark ignition phenomena in combustion cells and an SI-engine. The techniques are based on planar laser induced fluorescence imaging (PLIF) of OH radicals, on fuel tracer PLIF, and on chemiluminescence. The techniques could be achieved at repetition rates reaching several hundreds of kilo-Hz and were cycle resolved. These techniques offer a new path along which engine related diagnostics can be undertaken, providing a wealth of information on turbulent spark ignition.
Technical Paper

Qualitative Laser-Induced Incandescence Measurements of Particulate Emissions During Transient Operation of a TDI Diesel Engine

2001-09-24
2001-01-3574
Laser-induced incandescence (LII) is a sensitive diagnostic technique capable of making exhaust particulate-matter measurements during transient operating conditions. This paper presents measurements of LII signals obtained from the exhaust gas of a 1.9-L TDI diesel engine. A scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) is used in fixed-size mode to obtain simultaneous number concentration measurements in real-time. The transient studies presented include a cranking-start/idle/shutdown sequence, on/off cycling of EGR, and rapid load changes. The results show superior temporal response of LII compared to the SMPS. Additional advantages of LII are that exhaust dilution and cooling are not required, and that the signal amplitude is directly proportional to the carbon volume fraction and its temporal decay is related to the primary particle size.
Technical Paper

Interaction Between Turbulence and Flame in an S.I. Engine and in a Stationary Burner

1999-03-01
1999-01-0569
Turbulent flame speeds have been measured in a single cylinder S.I. engine and in a stationary atmospheric burner. One- and two-point LDA has been used to measure turbulence intensities and integral length scales. Stretching, in terms of Karlovitz numbers could be estimated from these measurements. The influence of moving average filtered turbulence on the flame speed in the S.I. engine is in agreement with the burner experiments. Previously reported signs of quenching of small flames in the S.I. engine, due to excessive turbulence could not be found for larger flames.
Technical Paper

Employing an Ionization Sensor for Combustion Diagnostics in a Lean Burn Natural Gas Engine

2001-03-05
2001-01-0992
An ionization sensor has been used to study the combustion process in a six-cylinder lean burn, truck-sized engine fueled with natural gas and optimized for low emissions of nitric oxides. The final goal of the investigations is to study the prospects of using the ionization sensor for finding the optimal operating position with respect to low NOx emission and stable engine operation. The results indicate that unstable combustion can be detected by analyzing the coefficient of variation (CoV) of the detector current amplitude. Close relationships between this measure and the CoV of the indicated mean effective pressure have been found during an air-fuel ratio scan with fixed ignition advance.
Technical Paper

Wavelet Analysis of In-Cylinder LDV Velocity Measurements

1996-10-01
961921
The object of this paper is to present a new way of analyzing in-cylinder velocity measurements. The technique is called Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and it is similar to Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) with one important difference it is possible to obtain both time localized and frequency resolved information. This paper demonstrates the use of DWT calculations on in-cylinder LDV flow measurements for different combustion geometries in a natural gas converted truck engine. It will furthermore provide some information about how DWT can be used with in-cylinder measurements in the future.
Technical Paper

Combustion Chambers for Supercharged Natural Gas Engines

1997-02-24
970221
This work is a continuation of earlier research conducted on the effects of different combustion chambers on turbulence, combustion, emissions and efficiency for natural gas converted diesel bus engines. In this second measurement series the engine (Volvo TD102) was supercharged to enable bmep up to 18 bar at λ = 1.6-1.9. Six different combustion chambers were used. The results show that different geometrical combustion chambers, with the same compression ratio (12:1), have very different combustion performance. A high rate of heat release is favorable for lean operation, and the design of the combustion chamber is very important for the knock and misfire limits.
Technical Paper

Combustion Chambers for Natural Gas SI Engines Part I: Fluid Flow and Combustion

1995-02-01
950469
The most economical way to convert truck and bus DI-diesel engines to natural gas operation is to replace the injector with a spark plug and modify the combustion chamber in the piston crown for spark ignition operation. The modification of the piston crown should give a geometry well suited for spark ignition operation with the original swirling inlet port. Ten different geometries were tried on a converted VOLVO TD102 engine and a remarkably large difference in the rate of combustion was noted between the chambers. To find an explanation for this difference a cycle resolved measurement of the in-cylinder mean velocity and turbulence was performed with Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV). The results show a high correlation between in cylinder turbulence and rate of heat release in the main part of combustion.
Technical Paper

Combustion Chambers for Natural Gas SI Engines Part 2: Combustion and Emissions

1995-02-01
950517
The objective of this paper is to investigate how the combustion chamber design will influence combustion parameters and emissions in a natural gas SI engine. Ten different geometries were tried on a converted Volvo TD102 engine. For the different combustion chambers emissions and the pressure in the cylinder have been measured. The pressure in the cylinder was then used in a one-zone heat-release model to get different combustion parameters. The engine was operated unthrottled at 1200 rpm with different values of air/fuel ratio and EGR. The air/fuel ratio was varied from stoichiometric to lean limit. EGR values from 0 to 30% at stoichiometric air/fuel ratio were used. The results show a remarkably large difference in the rate of combustion between the chambers. The cycle-to-cycle variations are fairly independent of combustion chamber design as long as there is some squish area and the air and the natural gas are well mixed.
Technical Paper

Investigations of the Influence of Mixture Preparation on Cyclic Variations in a SI-Engine, Using Laser Induced Fluorescence

1995-02-01
950108
To study the effect of different injection timings on the charge inhomogeneity, planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) was applied to an operating engine. Quantitative images of the fuel distribution within the engine were obtained. Since the fuel used, iso-octane, does not fluoresce, a dopant was required. Three-pentanone was found to have vapour pressure characteristics similar to those of iso-octane as well as low absorption and suitable spectral properties. A worst case estimation of the total accuracy from the PLIF images gives a maximum error of 0.03 in equivalence ratio. The results show that an early injection timing gives a higher degree of charge inhomogeneity close to the spark plug. It is also shown that charge inhomogeneity gives a more unstable engine operation. A correlation was noted between the combustion on a cycle to cycle basis and the average fuel concentration within a circular area close to the spark plug center.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Valve Strategy on In-Cylinder Flow and Combustion

1996-02-01
960582
This study is focused on the effect of different valve strategies on the in-cylinder flow and combustion A conventional four-valve pentroof engine was modified to enable optical access to the combustion chamber To get information on the flow, a two-component LDV system was applied The combustion was monitored by the use of cylinder pressure in a one-zone heat release model The results show that the flow in the cylinder with the valves operating in the standard configuration has an expected tumble characteristic In this case the high frequency turbulence is homogeneous and has a peak approximately 20 CAD BTDC With one valve deactivated, the flow shows a swirling pattern The turbulence is then less homogeneous but the level of turbulence is increased When the single inlet valve was phased late against the crankshaft dramatic effects on the flow resulted The late inlet valve opening introduced a low cylinder pressure before the valve opened The high pressure difference across the valve introduced a high-velocity jet into the cylinder Turbulence was increased by a factor of two by this operational mode When two inlet valves were used, a reduction of turbulence resulted from a very late inlet cam phase
Technical Paper

The Importance of High-Frequency, Small-Eddy Turbulence in Spark Ignited, Premixed Engine Combustion

1995-10-01
952409
The different roles played by small and large eddies in engine combustion were studied. Experiments compared natural gas combustion in a converted, single cylinder Volvo TD 102 engine and in a 125 mm cubical cell. Turbulence is used to enhance flame growth, ideally giving better efficiency and reduced cyclic variation. Both engine and test cell results showed that flame growth rate correlated best with the level of high frequency, small eddy turbulence. The more effective, small eddy turbulence also tended to lower cyclic variations. Large scales and bulk flows convected the flame relative to cool surfaces and were most important to the initial flame kernel.
Technical Paper

Residual Gas Visualization with Laser Induced Fluorescence

1995-10-01
952463
The influence of residual gases on the cycle-to-cycle variations in engine combustion was investigated. Two-photon planar laser-induced fluorescence was used for 2D-visualization of residual gas water. In order to avoid influence from fuel fluorescence and inhomogeneities premixed natural gas was used as fuel. Measurements were conducted at different load conditions with varying inlet manifold pressure. To find out how the residual gas distribution influences the combustion process the pressure development during combustion was monitored. From the pressure information a measure of the combustion rate at different phases of the flame development was calculated. The correlation between residual gas distribution and combustion rate was evaluated on a cycle to cycle basis. The results show that with an inlet manifold pressure of 0.3 bar the correlation between residual gas fraction and rate of combustion were 0.5-0.6. At full load though, lower correlation was found.
Technical Paper

Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Using Isooctane, Ethanol and Natural Gas - A Comparison with Spark Ignition Operation

1997-10-01
972874
The Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) is the third alternative for combustion in the Internal Combustion (IC) engines. Here, a homogeneous charge is used as in a spark ignited engine but the charge is compressed to auto-ignition as in a diesel. The characteristics of HCCI were compared to SI using a 1.6 liter single cylinder engine with compression ratio 21:1 in HCCI mode and 12:1 in SI mode. Three different fuels were used; isooctane, ethanol and natural gas. Some remarkable results were noted in the experiments: The indicated efficiency of HCCI was much better than for SI operation. Very little NOx was generated with HCCI, eliminating the need for a LeanNOx catalyst. However, HCCI generated more HC and CO than SI operation. Stable and efficient operation with HCCI could be obtained with λ=3 to λ=9 using isooctane or ethanol. Natural gas, with a higher octane number, required a richer mixture to run in HCCI mode.
Technical Paper

Measurements of Turbulent Flame Speed and Integral Length Scales in a Lean Stationary Premixed Flame

1998-02-23
981050
Turbulent premixed natural gas - air flame velocities have been measured in a stationary axi-symmetric burner using LDA. The flame was stabilized by letting the flow retard toward a stagnation plate downstream of the burner exit. Turbulence was generated by letting the flow pass through a plate with drilled holes. Three different hole diameters were used, 3, 6 and 10 mm, in order to achieve different turbulent length scales. Turbulent integral length scales were measured using two-point LDA and the stretching in terms of the Karlovitz number could be estimated from these measurements. The results support previous studies indicating that stretching reduces the flame speed.
Technical Paper

Styrofoam Precursors as Drop-in Diesel Fuel

2013-09-08
2013-24-0108
Styrene, or ethylbenzene, is mainly used as a monomer for the production of polymers, most notably Styrofoam. In the synthetis of styrene, the feedstock of benzene and ethylene is converted into aromatic oxygenates such as benzaldehyde, 2-phenyl ethanol and acetophenone. Benzaldehyde and phenyl ethanol are low value side streams, while acetophenone is a high value intermediate product. The side streams are now principally rejected from the process and burnt for process heat. Previous in-house research has shown that such aromatic oxygenates are suitable as diesel fuel additives and can in some cases improve the soot-NOx trade-off. In this study acetophenone, benzaldehyde and 2-phenyl ethanol are each added to commercial EN590 diesel at a ratio of 1:9, with the goal to ascertain whether or not the lower value benzaldehyde and 2-phenyl ethanol can perform on par with the higher value acetophenone. These compounds are now used in pure form.
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