Refine Your Search


Search Results

Viewing 1 to 20 of 20
Technical Paper

Injection of Fuel at High Pressure Conditions: LES Study

This paper presents a large eddy simulation study of the liquid spray mixing with hot ambient gas in a constant volume vessel under engine-like conditions with the injection pressure of 1500 bar, ambient density 22.8 kg/m₃, ambient temperature of 900 K and an injector nozzle of 0.09 mm. The simulation results are compared with the experiments carried out by Pickett et al., under similar conditions. Under modern direct injection diesel engine conditions, it has been argued that the liquid core region is small and the droplets after atomization are fine so that the process of spray evaporation and mixing with the air is controlled by the heat and mass transfer between the ambient hot gas and central fuel flow. To examine this hypothesis a simple spray breakup model is tested in the present LES simulation. The simulations are performed using an open source compressible flow solver, in OpenFOAM.
Technical Paper

Combustion Chamber Wall Temperature Measurement and Modeling During Transient HCCI Operation

In this paper the combustion chamber wall temperature was measured by the use of thermographic phosphor. The temperature was monitored over a large time window covering a load transient. Wall temperature measurement provide helpful information in all engines. This temperature is for example needed when calculating heat losses to the walls. Most important is however the effect of the wall temperature on combustion. The walls can not heat up instantaneously and the slowly increasing wall temperature following a load transient will affect the combustion events sucseeding the transient. The HCCI combustion process is, due to its dependence on chemical kinetics more sensitive to wall temperature than Otto or Diesel engines. In depth knowledge about transient wall temperature could increase the understanding of transient HCCI control. A “black box” state space model was derived which is useful when predicting transient wall temperature.
Technical Paper

Fuel Injection and Mean Swirl Effects on Combustion and Soot Formation in Heavy Duty Diesel Engines

High-speed video imaging in a swirl-supported (Rs = 1.7), direct-injection heavy-duty diesel engine operated with moderate-to-high EGR rates reveals a distinct correlation between the spatial distribution of luminous soot and mean flow vorticity in the horizontal plane. The temporal behavior of the experimental images, as well as the results of multi-dimensional numerical simulations, show that this soot-vorticity correlation is caused by the presence of a greater amount of soot on the windward side of the jet. The simulations indicate that while flow swirl can influence pre-ignition mixing processes as well as post-combustion soot oxidation processes, interactions between the swirl and the heat release can also influence mixing processes. Without swirl, combustion-generated gas flows influence mixing on both sides of the jet equally. In the presence of swirl, the heat release occurs on the leeward side of the fuel sprays.
Technical Paper

A Novel Model for Computing the Trapping Efficiency and Residual Gas Fraction Validated with an Innovative Technique for Measuring the Trapping Efficiency

The paper describes a novel method for calculating the residual gas fraction and the trapping efficiency in a 2 stroke engine. Assuming one dimensional compressible flow through the inlet and exhaust ports, the method estimates the instantaneous mass flowing in and out from the combustion chamber; later the residual gas fraction and trapping efficiency are estimated combining together the perfect displacement and perfect mixing scavenging models. It is assumed that when the intake port opens, the fresh mixture is pushing out the burned charge without any mixing and after a multiple of the time needed for the largest eddy to perform one rotation, the two gasses are instantly mixed up together and expelled. The result is a very simple algorithm that does not require much computational time and is able to estimate with high level of precision the trapping efficiency and the residual gas fraction in 2 stroke engines.
Technical Paper

Effect of Temperature Stratification on the Auto-ignition of Lean Ethanol/Air Mixture in HCCI engine

It has been known from multi-zone simulations that HCCI combustion can be significantly affected by temperature stratification of the in-cylinder gas. With the same combustion timing (i.e. crank angles at 50% heat release, denoted as CA50), large temperature stratification tends to prolong the combustion duration and lower down the in-cylinder pressure-rise-rate. With low pressure-rise-rate HCCI engines can be operated at high load, therefore it is of practical importance to look into more details about how temperature stratification affects the auto-ignition process. It has been realized that multi-zone simulations can not account for the effects of spatial structures of the stratified temperature field, i.e. how the size of the hot and cold spots in the temperature field could affect the auto-ignition process. This question is investigated in the present work by large eddy simulation (LES) method which is capable of resolving the in-cylinder turbulence field in space and time.
Technical Paper

A Real Time NOx Model for Conventional and Partially Premixed Diesel Combustion

In this paper a fast NOx model is presented which can be used for engine optimization, aftertreatment control or virtual mapping. A cylinder pressure trace is required as input data. High calculation speed is obtained by using table interpolation to calculate equilibrium temperatures and species concentrations. Test data from a single-cylinder engine and from a complete six-cylinder engine have been used for calibration and validation of the model. The model produces results of good agreement with emission measurements using approximately 50 combustion product zones and a calculation time of one second per engine cycle. Different compression ratios, EGR rates, injection timing, inlet pressures etc. were used in the validation tests.
Technical Paper

Comparison Between In-Cylinder PIV Measurements, CFD Simulations and Steady-Flow Impulse Torque Swirl Meter Measurements

In-cylinder flow measurements, conventional swirl measurements and CFD-simulations have been performed and then compared. The engine studied is a single cylinder version of a Scania D12 that represents a modern heavy-duty truck size engine. Bowditch type optical access and flat piston is used. The cylinder head was also measured in a steady-flow impulse torque swirl meter. From the two-dimensional flow-field, which was measured in the interval from -200° ATDC to 65° ATDC at two different positions from the cylinder head, calculations of the vorticity, turbulence and swirl were made. A maximum in swirl occurs at about 50° before TDC while the maximum vorticity and turbulence occurs somewhat later during the compression stroke. The swirl centre is also seen moving around and it does not coincide with the geometrical centre of the cylinder. The simulated flow-field shows similar behaviour as that seen in the measurements.
Technical Paper

Prediction Tool for the Ion Current in SI Combustion

In this work, constant volume combustion is studied using a zero-dimensional FORTRAN code, which is a wide-ranging chemical kinetic simulation that allows a closed system of gases to be described on the basis of a set of initial conditions. The model provides an engine- or reactor-like environment in which the engine simulations allow for a variable system volume and heat transfer both to and from the system. The combustion chamber is divided into two zones as burned and unburned ones, which are separated by an assumed thin flame front in the combustion model used for this work. Equilibrium assumptions have been adopted for the modeling of the thermal ionization, where Saha's equation was derived for singly ionized molecules. The investigation is focused on the thermal ionization of NO as well as for other species. The outputs generated by the model are temperature profiles, species concentration profiles, ionization degree and an electron density for each zone.
Technical Paper

A Brush-Model Based Semi-Empirical Tire-Model for Combined Slips

This paper presents a new method to derive the tire forces for simultaneous braking and cornering, by combining empirical models for pure braking and cornering using brush-model tire mechanics. The method is aimed at simulation of vehicle handling, and is of intermediate complexity such that it may be implemented and calibrated by the end user. The brush model states that the contact patch between the tire and the road is divided into an adhesion region where the rubber is gripping the road and a sliding region where the rubber slides on the road surface. The total force generated by the tire is then composed of components from these two regions. In the proposed method the adhesion and the sliding forces are extracted from an empirical pure-slip tire model and then scaled to account for the combined-slip condition. The combined-slip self-aligning torque is described likewise.
Technical Paper

Cycle-to-Cycle Control of a Dual-Fuel HCCI Engine

A known problem of the HCCI engine is its lack of direct control and its requirements of feedback control. Today there exists several different means to control an HCCI engine, such as dual fuels, variable valve actuation, inlet temperature and compression ratio. Independent of actuation method a sensor is needed. In this paper we perform closed-loop control based on two different sensors, pressure and ion current sensor. Results showing that they give similar control performance within their operating range are presented. Also a comparison of two methods of designing HCCI timing controller, manual tuning and model based design is presented. A PID controller is used as an example of a manually tuned controller. A Linear Quadratic Gaussian controller exemplifies model based controller design. The models used in the design were estimated using system identification methods. The system used in this paper performs control on cycle-to-cycle basis. This leads to fast and robust control.
Technical Paper

An Air Hybrid for High Power Absorption and Discharge

An air hybrid is a vehicle with an ICE modified to also work as an air compressor and air motor. The engine is connected to two air reservoirs, normally the atmosphere and a high pressure tank. The main benefit of such a system is the possibility to make use of the kinetic energy of the vehicle otherwise lost when braking. The main difference between the air hybrid developed in this paper and earlier air hybrid concepts is the introduction of a pressure tank that substitutes the atmosphere as supplier of low air pressure. By this modification, a very high torque can be achieved in compressor mode as well as in air motor mode. A model of an air hybrid with two air tanks was created using the engine simulation code GT-Power. The results from the simulations were combined with a driving cycle to estimate the reduction in fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Concurrent Quantitative Laser-Induced Incandescence and SMPS Measurements of EGR Effects on Particulate Emissions from a TDI Diesel Engine

A comparison of scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and laser-induced incandescence (LII) measurements of diesel particulate matter (PM) was performed. The results reveal the significance of the aggregate nature of diesel PM on interpretation of size and volume fraction measurements obtained with an SMPS, and the accuracy of primary particle size measurements by LII. Volume fraction calculations based on the mobility diameter measured by the SMPS substantially over-predict the space-filling volume fraction of the PM. Correction algorithms for the SMPS measurements, to account for the fractal nature of the aggregate morphology, result in a substantial reduction in the reported volume. The behavior of the particulate volume fraction, mean and standard deviation of the mobility diameter, and primary particle size are studied as a function of the EGR for a range of steady-state engine speeds and loads for a turbocharged direct-injection diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Heat Release in the End-Gas Prior to Knock in Lean, Rich and Stoichiometric Mixtures With and Without EGR

SI Engine knock is caused by autoignition in the unburnt part of the mixture (end-gas) ahead of the propagating flame. Autoignition of the end-gas occurs when the temperature and pressure exceeds a critical limit when comparatively slow reactions-releasing moderate amounts of heat-transform into ignition and rapid heat release. In this paper the difference in the heat released in the end-gas-by low temperature chemistry-between lean, rich, stochiometric, and stoichiometric mixtures diluted with cooled EGR was examined by measuring the temperature in the end-gas with Dual Broadband Rotational CARS. The measured temperature history was compared with an isentropic temperature calculated from the cylinder pressure trace. The experimentally obtained values for knock onset were compared with results from a two-zone thermodynamic model including detailed chemistry modeling of the end-gas reactions.
Technical Paper

Automatic Reduction of Detailed Chemical Reaction Mechanisms for Autoignition Under SI Engine Conditions

A method for automatic reduction of detailed reaction mechanisms using simultaneous sensitivity, reaction flow and lifetime analysis has been developed and applied to a two-zone model of an SI engine fuelled with Primary Reference Fuel (PRF). Species which are less relevant for the occurrence of autoignition in the end gas are declared redundant. They are identified and eliminated for different pre-set minimum levels of reaction flow and sensitivity. The resulting skeletal mechanism is valid in the ranges of initial and boundary values for which the analyses have been performed. A measure of species lifetime is calculated from the chemical source terms, and the species with the lifetime shorter than and mass-fraction less than specified limits are selected for removal.
Technical Paper

Effect of Inhomogeneities in the End Gas Temperature Field on the Autoignition in SI Engines

This paper reports an one–dimensional modeling procedure of the hot spot autoignition with a detailed chemistry and multi–species transport in the end gas in an SI engine. The governing equations for continuity of mass, momentum, energy and species for an one–dimensional, unsteady, compressible, laminar, reacting flow and thermal fields are discretized and solved by a fully implicit method. A chemical kinetic mechanism is used for the primary reference fuels n–heptane and iso–octane. This mechanism contains 510 chemical reactions and 75 species. The change of the cylinder pressure is calculated from both flame propagation and piston movement. The turbulent velocity of the propagating flame is modeled by the Wiebe function. Adiabatic conditions, calculated by minimizing Gibb's free energy at each time step, are assumed behind the flame front in the burned gas.
Technical Paper

Reacting Boundary Layers in a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine

An experimental and computational study of the near-wall combustion in a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine has been conducted by applying laser based diagnostic techniques in combination with numerical modeling. Our major intent was to characterize the combustion in the velocity- and thermal boundary layers. The progress of the combustion was studied by using fuel tracer LIF, the result of which was compared with LDA measurements of the velocity boundary layer along with numerical simulations of the reacting boundary layer. Time resolved images of the PLIF signal were taken and ensemble averaged images were calculated. In the fuel tracer LIF experiments, acetone was seeded into the fuel as a tracer. It is clear from the experiments that a proper set of backgrounds and laser profiles are necessary to resolve the near-wall concentration profiles, even at a qualitative level.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Knock on the Heat Transfer in an SI Engine: Thermal Boundary Layer Investigation using CARS Temperature Measurements and Heat Flux Measurements

It is generally accepted that knocking combustion influences the heat transfer in SI engines. However, the effects of heat transfer on the onset of knock is still not clear due to lack of experimental data of the thermal boundary layer close to the combustion chamber wall. This paper presents measurements of the temperature in the thermal boundary layer under knocking and non-knocking conditions. The temperature was measured using dual-broadband rotational Coherent anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS). Simultaneous time-resolved measurements of the cylinder pressure, at three different locations, and the heat flux to the wall were carried out. Optical access to the region near the combustion chamber wall was achieved by using a horseshoe-shaped combustion chamber with windows installed in the rectangular part of the chamber. This arrangement made CARS temperature measurements close to the wall possible and results are presented in the range 0.1-5 mm from the wall.
Technical Paper

A Skeletal Kinetic Mechanism for the Oxidation of Iso-Octane and N-Heptane Validated Under Engine Knock Conditions

A method for automatic reduction of detailed kinetic to skeletal mechanisms for complex fuels is proposed. The method is based on the simultaneous use of sensitivity and reaction-flow analysis. The resulting skeletal mechanism is valid for the parameter range of initial and boundary values, the analysis have been performed for. The gas-phase chemistry is analyzed in the end gas of an SI-engine, using a two-zone model. Species, not relevant for the occurrence of autoignition in the end gas, are defined as redundant. They are identified and eliminated for different pre-set levels of minimum reaction flow and sensitivity. The error in the mechanism increases monotony with increasing pre-set level of minimum reaction flow.
Technical Paper

Knock in Spark-Ignition Engines: End-Gas Temperature Measurements Using Rotational CARS and Detailed Kinetic Calculations of the Autoignition Process

Cycle-resolved end-gas temperatures were measured using dual-broadband rotational CARS in a single-cylinder spark-ignition engine. Simultaneous cylinder pressure measurements were used as an indicator for knock and as input data to numerical calculations. The chemical processes in the end-gas have been analysed with a detailed kinetic mechanism for mixtures of iso-octane and n-heptane at different Research Octane Numbers (RON'S). The end-gas is modelled as a homogeneous reactor that is compressed or expanded by the piston movement and the flame propagation in the cylinder. The calculated temperatures are in agreement with the temperatures evaluated from CARS measurements. It is found that calculations with different RON'S of the fuel lead to different levels of radical concentrations in the end-gas. The apperance of the first stage of the autoignition process is marginally influenced by the RON, while the ignition delay of the second stage is increased with increasing RON.
Technical Paper

Investigation of End-Gas Temperature and Pressure Increases in Gasoline Engines and Relevance for Knock Occurrence

A detailed analysis of the end-gas temperature and pressure in gasoline engines has been performed. This analysis leads to a simplified zero-dimensional model, that considers both, the compression and the expansion of the end-gas by the piston movement, and the compression by the flame front. If autoignition occurs in the end-gas the sudden rise of the pressure and the heat release is calculated. The rate form of the first law of thermodynamics for a control volume combined with the mass conservation equation for an unsteady and a uniform-flow process are applied. The heat of formation in the end-gas due to the chemical activity has been taken into account. In addition, a chemical kinetic model has been applied in order to study the occurrence of autoignition and prediction of knock.