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Journal Article

UHC and CO Emissions Sources from a Light-Duty Diesel Engine Undergoing Dilution-Controlled Low-Temperature Combustion

Unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emission sources are examined in an optical, light-duty diesel engine operating under low load and engine speed, while employing a highly dilute, partially premixed low-temperature combustion (LTC) strategy. The impact of engine load and charge dilution on the UHC and CO sources is also evaluated. The progression of in-cylinder mixing and combustion processes is studied using ultraviolet planar laser-induced fluorescence (UV PLIF) to measure the spatial distributions of liquid- and vapor-phase hydrocarbon. A separate, deep-UV LIF technique is used to examine the clearance volume spatial distribution and composition of late-cycle UHC and CO. Homogeneous reactor simulations, utilizing detailed chemical kinetics and constrained by the measured cylinder pressure, are used to examine the impact of charge dilution and initial stoichiometry on oxidation behavior.
Technical Paper

The Application of Ceramic and Catalytic Coatings to Reduce the Unburned Hydrocarbon Emissions from a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine

An experimental and theoretical study of the effect of thermal barriers and catalytic coatings in a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine has been conducted. The main intent of the study was to investigate if a thermal barrier or catalytic coating of the wall would support the oxidation of the near-wall unburned hydrocarbons. In addition, the effect of these coatings on thermal efficiency due to changed heat transfer characteristics was investigated. The experimental setup was based on a partially coated combustion chamber. The upper part of the cylinder liner, the piston top including the top land, the valves and the cylinder head were all coated. As a thermal barrier, a coating based on plasma-sprayed Al2O3 was used. The catalytic coating was based on plasma-sprayed ZrO2 doped with Platinum. The two coatings tested were of varying thickness' of 0.15, 0.25 and 0.6 mm. The compression ratio was set to 16.75:1.
Technical Paper

Hydrocarbon (HC) Reduction of Exhaust Gases from a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine Using Different Catalytic Mesh-Coatings

A FeCrAlloy mesh-type catalyst has been used to reduce hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from a 4-stroke HCCI engine. Significant for the HCCI engine is a high compression ratio and lean mixtures, which leads to a high efficiency, low combustion temperatures and thereby low NOx emissions, <5 pmm, but also low exhaust temperatures, around 300°C. It becomes critical to: 1. Ensure that the HCCI-combustion generates as low HC emissions as possible, this can be done by very precise control of engine inlet conditions and, if possible, compression ratio. 2. Ensure that the exhaust temperature is high enough, without loosing efficiency or producing NOx; in order to get an oxidizing catalyst to work. 3. Select proper catalyst material for the catalyst so that the exhaust temperature can be as low as possible.