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Journal Article

UHC and CO Emissions Sources from a Light-Duty Diesel Engine Undergoing Dilution-Controlled Low-Temperature Combustion

Unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emission sources are examined in an optical, light-duty diesel engine operating under low load and engine speed, while employing a highly dilute, partially premixed low-temperature combustion (LTC) strategy. The impact of engine load and charge dilution on the UHC and CO sources is also evaluated. The progression of in-cylinder mixing and combustion processes is studied using ultraviolet planar laser-induced fluorescence (UV PLIF) to measure the spatial distributions of liquid- and vapor-phase hydrocarbon. A separate, deep-UV LIF technique is used to examine the clearance volume spatial distribution and composition of late-cycle UHC and CO. Homogeneous reactor simulations, utilizing detailed chemical kinetics and constrained by the measured cylinder pressure, are used to examine the impact of charge dilution and initial stoichiometry on oxidation behavior.
Technical Paper

Cylinder-to-Cylinder and Cycle-to-Cycle Variations at HCCI Operation With Trapped Residuals

A naturally aspirated in-line six-cylinder 2.9-litre Volvo engine is operated in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) mode, using camshafts with low lift and short duration generating negative valve overlap. Standard port fuel injection is used and pistons and cylinder head are unchanged from the automotive application. HCCI through negative valve overlap is recognized as one of the possible implementation strategies of HCCI closest to production. It is important to gain knowledge of the constraints and limits on the possible operating region. In this work, the emphasis is on investigating how cycle-to-cycle and cylinder-to-cylinder deviations limit the operating region, how these effects change in different parts of the operating region and how they can be controlled. At low load the cycle-to-cycle phenomena cause periodic behavior in combustion timing; together with cylinder deviations this is found responsible for decreasing the operating regime.
Technical Paper

Hydrocarbon (HC) Reduction of Exhaust Gases from a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine Using Different Catalytic Mesh-Coatings

A FeCrAlloy mesh-type catalyst has been used to reduce hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from a 4-stroke HCCI engine. Significant for the HCCI engine is a high compression ratio and lean mixtures, which leads to a high efficiency, low combustion temperatures and thereby low NOx emissions, <5 pmm, but also low exhaust temperatures, around 300°C. It becomes critical to: 1. Ensure that the HCCI-combustion generates as low HC emissions as possible, this can be done by very precise control of engine inlet conditions and, if possible, compression ratio. 2. Ensure that the exhaust temperature is high enough, without loosing efficiency or producing NOx; in order to get an oxidizing catalyst to work. 3. Select proper catalyst material for the catalyst so that the exhaust temperature can be as low as possible.
Technical Paper

A Multi-Zone Model for Prediction of HCCI Combustion and Emissions

Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion is a process dominated by chemical kinetics of the fuel-air mixture. The hottest part of the mixture ignites first, and compresses the rest of the charge, which then ignites after a short time lag. Crevices and boundary layers generally remain too cold to react, and result in substantial hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions. Turbulence has little effect on HCCI combustion, and may be most important as a factor in determining temperature gradients and boundary layer thickness inside the cylinder. The importance of thermal gradients inside the cylinder makes it necessary to use an integrated fluid mechanics-chemical kinetics code for accurate predictions of HCCI combustion. However, the use of a fluid mechanics code with detailed chemical kinetics is too computationally intensive for today's computers.