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Technical Paper

Styrofoam Precursors as Drop-in Diesel Fuel

2013-09-08
2013-24-0108
Styrene, or ethylbenzene, is mainly used as a monomer for the production of polymers, most notably Styrofoam. In the synthetis of styrene, the feedstock of benzene and ethylene is converted into aromatic oxygenates such as benzaldehyde, 2-phenyl ethanol and acetophenone. Benzaldehyde and phenyl ethanol are low value side streams, while acetophenone is a high value intermediate product. The side streams are now principally rejected from the process and burnt for process heat. Previous in-house research has shown that such aromatic oxygenates are suitable as diesel fuel additives and can in some cases improve the soot-NOx trade-off. In this study acetophenone, benzaldehyde and 2-phenyl ethanol are each added to commercial EN590 diesel at a ratio of 1:9, with the goal to ascertain whether or not the lower value benzaldehyde and 2-phenyl ethanol can perform on par with the higher value acetophenone. These compounds are now used in pure form.
Technical Paper

Effect of Piston Bowl Shape and Swirl Ratio on Engine Heat Transfer in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1141
Heat transfer losses are one of the largest loss contributions in a modern internal combustion engine. The aim of this study is to evaluate the contribution of the piston bowl type and swirl ratio to heat losses and performance. A commercial CFD tool is used to carry out simulations of four different piston bowl geometries, at three engine loads with two different swirl ratios at each load point. One of the geometries is used as a reference point, where CFD results are validated with engine test data. All other bowl geometries are scaled to the same compression ratio and make use of the same fuel injection, with a variation in the spray target between cases. The results show that the baseline case, which is of a conventional diesel bowl shape, provides the best emission performance, while a more open, tapered, lip-less combustion bowl is the most thermodynamically efficient.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Fuel-Cut Ageing during Retardation and Fuel-Cut during Acceleration

2014-04-01
2014-01-1504
The effect of various fuel-cut agings, on a Volvo Cars 4-cylinder gasoline engine, with bimetallic three-way catalysts (TWCs) was examined. Deactivation during retardation fuel-cut (low load) and acceleration fuel-cut (high load, e.g. gearshift or traction control) was compared to aging at λ=1. Three-way catalysts were aged on an engine bench comparing two fuel-cut strategies and their impact on of the life and performance of the catalysts. In greater detail, the catalytic activity, stability and selectivity were studied. Furthermore, the catalysts were thoroughly analyzed using light-off and oxygen storage capacity measurements. The emission conversion as a function of various lambda values and loads was also determined. Fresh and 40-hour aged samples showed that the acceleration fuel-cut was the strategy that had the highest contribution towards the total deactivation of the catalyst system.
Journal Article

Investigation of Wheel Aerodynamic Resistance of Passenger Cars

2014-04-01
2014-01-0606
There are a number of numerical and experimental studies of the aerodynamic performance of wheels that have been published. They show that wheels and wheel-housing flows are responsible for a substantial part of the total aerodynamic drag on passenger vehicles. Previous investigations have also shown that aerodynamic resistance moment acting on rotating wheels, sometimes referred to as ventilation resistance or ventilation torque is a significant contributor to the total aerodynamic resistance of the vehicle; therefore it should not be neglected when designing the wheel-housing area. This work presents a numerical study of the wheel ventilation resistance moment and factors that affect it, using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). It is demonstrated how pressure and shear forces acting on different rotating parts of the wheel affect the ventilation torque. It is also shown how a simple change of rim design can lead to a significant decrease in power consumption of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Effect of Rear-End Extensions on the Aerodynamic Forces of an SUV

2014-04-01
2014-01-0602
Under a global impulse for less man-made emissions, the automotive manufacturers search for innovative methods to reduce the fuel consumption and hence the CO2-emissions. Aerodynamics has great potential to aid the emission reduction since aerodynamic drag is an important parameter in the overall driving resistance force. As vehicles are considered bluff bodies, the main drag source is pressure drag, caused by the difference between front and rear pressure. Therefore increasing the base pressure is a key parameter to reduce the aerodynamic drag. From previous research on small-scale and full-scale vehicles, rear-end extensions are known to have a positive effect on the base pressure, enhancing pressure recovery and reducing the wake area. This paper investigates the effect of several parameters of these extensions on the forces, on the surface pressures of an SUV in the Volvo Cars Aerodynamic Wind Tunnel and compares them with numerical results.
Journal Article

V2V Communication Quality: Measurements in a Cooperative Automotive Platooning Application

2014-04-01
2014-01-0302
This paper presents measurements on Vehicle to Vehicle (V2V) communication between participants in a platooning application. Platooning, according to the SARTRE concept, implies several vehicles travelling together in tight formation, with a manually driven heavy lead vehicle. The platoon being studied consists of five vehicles; two trucks in the lead and three passenger cars. The V2V-communication node in each vehicle contains an 802.11p radio at 5,9 GHz. It is used to send messages between vehicles to coordinate movements and maintain safety in the platoon. Another cooperative application that relies on V2V-communication is multiple UAVs flying in formation; as investigated in KARYON. This project also investigates cooperative autonomous vehicles. In both applications, V2V-communication is an enabling technology. Two metrics are studied to quantify the V2V-communication quality: system packet error rate and consecutive packet loss.
Technical Paper

Effects of Ground Simulation on the Aerodynamic Coefficients of a Production Car in Yaw Conditions

2010-04-12
2010-01-0755
Automotive wind tunnel testing is a key element in the development of the aerodynamics of road vehicles. Continuous advancements are made in order to decrease the differences between actual on-road conditions and wind tunnel test properties and the importance of ground simulation with relative motion of the ground and rotating wheels has been the topic of several studies. This work presents a study on the effect of active ground simulation, using moving ground and rotating wheels, on the aerodynamic coefficients on a passenger car in yawed conditions. Most of the published studies on the effects of ground simulation cover only zero yaw conditions and only a few earlier investigations covering ground simulation during yaw were found in the existing literature and all considered simplified models. To further investigate this, a study on a full size sedan type vehicle of production status was performed in the Volvo Aerodynamic Wind Tunnel.
Technical Paper

A Wind Tunnel Study Correlating the Aerodynamic Effect of Cooling Flows for Full and Reduced Scale Models of a Passenger Car

2010-04-12
2010-01-0759
In the early stages of an aerodynamic development programme of a road vehicle it is common to use wind tunnel scale models. The obvious reasons for using scale models are that they are less costly to build and model scale wind tunnels are relatively inexpensive to operate. It is therefore desirable for model scale testing to be utilized even more than it is today. This however, requires that the scale models are highly detailed and that the results correlate with those of the full size vehicle. This paper presents a correlation study that was carried out in the Chalmers and Volvo Car Aerodynamic Wind Tunnels. The aim of the study was to investigate how successfully a correlation of the cooling air flow between a detailed scale model and a real full size vehicle could be achieved. Results show limited correlation on absolute global aerodynamic loads, but relative good correlation in drag and lift increments.
Technical Paper

Interference between Engine Bay Flow and External Aerodynamics of Road Vehicles

2010-04-12
2010-01-0288
This study focus on the aerodynamic influence of the engine bay packaging, with special emphasis on the density of packaging and its effect on cooling and exterior flow. For the study, numerical and experimental methods where combined to exploit the advantages of each method. The geometry used for the study was a model of Volvo S60 sedan type passenger car, carrying a detailed representation of the cooling package, engine bay and underbody area. In the study it was found that there is an influence on the exterior aerodynamics of the vehicle with respect to the packaging of the engine bay. Furthermore, it is shown that by evacuating a large amount of the cooling air through the wheel houses a reduction in drag can be achieved.
Technical Paper

Use of Six Sigma to Move Verification of Vehicle Remote Keyless Entry Upstreams in Product Development Process

2010-04-12
2010-01-0701
A primary goal within the industry is to shorten the lead time to get shorter time to market and lower cost. System verification can set the limits for how short the lead time can be. Traditionally verification of automotive communication systems like Remote Keyless Entry, RKE, is performed in a complete vehicle late in the product development process. To fulfill the quality demands during the shorter project time Volvo Cars, VCC, has experienced that it is necessary to develop new requirements and verification methods. Six Sigma contains a complete toolbox to do this in a structured and time efficient way. VCC has together with other Ford Motor Company, FMC, brands and the supplier Continental developed methods and requirements so that the RKE system can be verified before vehicles are built. Only a last validation has to be performed in a complete vehicle.
Technical Paper

Injection of Fuel at High Pressure Conditions: LES Study

2011-09-11
2011-24-0041
This paper presents a large eddy simulation study of the liquid spray mixing with hot ambient gas in a constant volume vessel under engine-like conditions with the injection pressure of 1500 bar, ambient density 22.8 kg/m₃, ambient temperature of 900 K and an injector nozzle of 0.09 mm. The simulation results are compared with the experiments carried out by Pickett et al., under similar conditions. Under modern direct injection diesel engine conditions, it has been argued that the liquid core region is small and the droplets after atomization are fine so that the process of spray evaporation and mixing with the air is controlled by the heat and mass transfer between the ambient hot gas and central fuel flow. To examine this hypothesis a simple spray breakup model is tested in the present LES simulation. The simulations are performed using an open source compressible flow solver, in OpenFOAM.
Technical Paper

Inflatable Curtain (IC) Activation in L-type Side Impacts

2010-04-12
2010-01-1156
The Inflatable Curtain (IC) has shown great potential to reduce head injuries in side impacts. This study explores and presents enhanced performance in two steps of improved activation algorithms. Crash data analysis, 21 full scale crash tests and component tests in a custom built drop tower rig have been performed. The IC performance in wider crash scenarios, including side impacts outside the occupant compartment (L-type impacts), was evaluated. Both statistical crash data and in-depth studies were used. It was found in the analysis of real life crashes that moderate to fatal head injuries can occur without intrusion in the occupant compartment. In L-type side impacts, the motion of the occupant relative to the vehicle interior may cause a head impact of sufficiently high severity to cause moderate to severe head injuries. A combined analysis of real world crash data and crash test results indicates that a substantial reduction in moderate to fatal head injuries can be achieved.
Technical Paper

Influence of the Wall Temperature and Combustion Chamber Geometry on the Performance and Emissions of a Mini HCCI Engine Fueled with Diethyl Ether

2008-04-14
2008-01-0008
Nowadays for small-scale power generation there are electrochemical batteries and mini engines. Many efforts have been done for improving the power density of the batteries but unfortunately the value of 1 MJ/kg seems to be asymptotic. If the energy source is an organic fuel which has an energy density of around 29 MJ/kg with a minimum overall efficiency of only 3.5%, this device would surpass the batteries. This paper is the fifth of a series of publications aimed to study the HCCI combustion process in the milli domain at high engine speed in order to design and develop VIMPA, Vibrating Microengine for Low Power Generation and Microsystems Actuation. Previous studies ranged from general characterization of the HCCI combustion process by using metal and optical engines, to more specific topics for instance the influence of the boundary layer and quenching distance on the quality of the combustion.
Technical Paper

Influence of the Compression Ratio on the Performance and Emissions of a Mini HCCI Engine Fueled Ether with Diethyl

2007-10-29
2007-01-4075
Power supply systems play a very important role in applications of everyday life. Mainly, for low power generation, there are two ways of producing energy: electrochemical batteries and small engines. In the last few years many improvements have been carried out in order to obtain lighter batteries with longer duration but unfortunately the energy density of 1 MJ/kg seems to be an asymptotic value. If the energy source is an organic fuel with an energy density of around 29 MJ/kg and a minimum overall efficiency of only 3.5%, this device can surpass the batteries. Nowadays the most efficient combustion process is HCCI combustion which is able to combine high energy conversion efficiency and low emission levels with a very low fuel consumption. In this paper, an investigation has been carried out concerning the effects of the compression ratio on the performance and emissions of a mini, Vd = 4.11 [cm3], HCCI engine fueled with diethyl ether.
Technical Paper

Improving Ion Current Feedback for HCCI Engine Control

2007-10-29
2007-01-4053
In HCCI you do not have the same control of the combustion like in SI and Diesel engines. Controlling the start of a combustion event is a difficult task and requires feedback from previous cycles. This feedback can be retrieved from ion current measurements. By applying a voltage over the spark gap, ions will lead a current and a signal that represents the combustion in the cylinder will be retrieved. Voltages of 450 V were used. The paper describes a new method to enhance the combustion phasing from the Ion current trace in HCCI engines. The method is using the knowledge of how the signal should look. This is known due to the fact that the shape of the ion current signal is similar from cycle to cycle. This new observation is shown in the paper. Also the correlation between the ion current and CA50 was studied. Later the signals have been used for combustion feedback.
Technical Paper

Mini High Speed HCCI Engine Fueled with Ether: Load Range, Emission Characteristics and Optical Analysis

2007-08-05
2007-01-3606
Power supply systems play a very important role in everyday life applications. There are mainly two ways of producing energy for low power generation: electrochemical batteries and small engines. In the last few years, many improvements have been carried out in order to obtain lighter batteries with longer durations but unfortunately the energy density of 1 MJ/kg seems to be an asymptotic value. An energy source constituted of an organic fuel with an energy density around 29 MJ/kg and a minimum overall efficiency of only 3.5% could surpass batteries. Nowadays, the most efficient combustion process is HCCI combustion which has the ability to combine a high energy conversion efficiency with low emission levels and a very low fuel consumption. The present paper describes an investigation carried out on a modified model airplane engine, on how a pure HCCI combustion behaves in a small volume, Vd = 4.11 cm3, at very high engine speeds (up to 17,500 [rpm]).
Technical Paper

Transient Emission Predictions With Quasi Stationary Models

2005-10-24
2005-01-3852
Heavy trucks contribute significantly to the overall air pollution, especially NOx and PM emissions. Models to predict the emissions from heavy trucks in real world on road conditions are therefore of great interest. Most such models are based on data achieved from stationary measurements, i.e. engine maps. This type of “quasi stationary” models could also be of interest in other applications where emission models of low complexity are desired, such as engine control and simulation and control of exhaust aftertreatment systems. In this paper, results from quasi stationary calculations of fuel consumption, CO, HC, NOx and PM emissions are compared with time resolved measurements of the corresponding quantities. Measurement data from three Euro 3-class engines is used. The differences are discussed in terms of the conditions during transients and correction models for quasi stationary calculations are presented. Simply using engine maps without transient correction is not sufficient.
Technical Paper

Multi-Output Control of a Heavy Duty HCCI Engine Using Variable Valve Actuation and Model Predictive Control

2006-04-03
2006-01-0873
Autoignition of a homogeneous mixture is very sensitive to operating conditions, therefore fast control is necessary for reliable operation. There exists several means to control the combustion phasing of an Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine, but most of the presented controlled HCCI result has been performed with single-input single-output controllers. In order to fully operate an HCCI engine several output variables need to be controlled simultaneously, for example, load, combustion phasing, cylinder pressure and emissions. As these output variables have an effect on each other, the controller should be of a structure which includes the cross-couplings between the output variables. A Model Predictive Control (MPC) controller is proposed as a solution to the problem of load-torque control with simultaneous minimization of the fuel consumption and emissions, while satisfying the constraints on cylinder pressure.
Technical Paper

Modelling Diesel Engine Combustion and NOx Formation for Model Based Control and Simulation of Engine and Exhaust Aftertreatment Systems

2006-04-03
2006-01-0687
Emissions standards are becoming increasingly harder to reach without the use of exhaust aftertreatment systems such as Selective Catalytic Reduction and particulate filters. In order to make efficient use of these systems it is important to have accurate models of engine-out emissions. Such models are also useful for optimizing and controlling next-generation engines without aftertreatment using for example exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Engines are getting more advanced using systems such as common rail fuel injection, variable geometry turbochargers (VGT) and EGR. With these new technologies and active control of the injection timing, more sophisticated models than simple stationary emission maps must be used to get adequate results. This paper is focused on the calculation of engine-out NOx and engine parameters such as cylinder pressure, temperature and gas flows.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Boundary Layer Behaviour in HCCI Combustion using Chemiluminescence Imaging

2005-10-24
2005-01-3729
A five-cylinder diesel engine, converted to a single cylinder operated optical engine is run in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) mode. A blend of iso-octane and n-heptane is used as fuel. An experimental study of the horizontal boundary layer between the main combustion and the non-reacting surface of the combustion chamber is conducted as a function of speed, load, swirl and injection strategy. The combustion behaviour is monitored by chemiluminescence measurements. For all cases an interval from -10 to 16 crank angles after top dead center (CAD ATDC) in steps of one CAD are studied. One image-intensified camera observes the boundary layer up close from the side through a quartz cylinder liner while a second camera has a more global view from below to see more large scale structure of the combustion. The averaged chemiluminescence intensity from the HCCI combustion is seen to scale well with the rate of heat release.
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