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Technical Paper

UEGO-based Exhaust Gas Mass Flow Rate Measurement

New and upcoming exhaust emissions regulations and fuel consumption reduction requirements are forcing the development of innovative and particularly complex intake-engine-exhaust layouts. Especially in the case of Compression Ignition (CI) engines, the HC-CO-NOx-PM after-treatment system is becoming extremely expensive and sophisticated, and the necessity to further reduce engine-out emission levels, without significantly penalizing fuel consumption figures, may lead to the adoption of intricate and challenging intake-exhaust systems configurations. The adoption of both long- and short-route Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) systems is one example of such situation, and the need to precisely measure (or estimate) mass flow rates in the various elements of the gas exchange circuit is one of the consequences.
Technical Paper

Virtual GDI Engine as a Tool for Model-Based Calibration

Recent and forthcoming fuel consumption reduction requirements and exhaust emissions regulations are forcing the development of innovative and particularly complex intake-engine-exhaust layouts. In the case of Spark Ignition (SI) engines, the necessity to further reduce fuel consumption has led to the adoption of direct injection systems, displacement downsizing, and challenging intake-exhaust configurations, such as multi-stage turbocharging or turbo-assist solutions. Further, the most recent turbo-GDI engines may be equipped with other fuel-reduction oriented technologies, such as Variable Valve Timing (VVT) systems, devices for actively control tumble/swirl in-cylinder flow components, and Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) systems. Such degree of flexibility has a main drawback: the exponentially increasing effort required for optimal engine control calibration.
Technical Paper

Thermal Management Strategies for SCR After Treatment Systems

While the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) is actually a quasi-standard equipment in the European Diesel passenger cars market, an interesting solution to fulfill NOx emission limits for the next EU 6 legislation is the application of a Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system on the exhaust line, to drastically reduce NOx emissions. In this context, one of the main issues is the performance of the SCR system during cold start and warm up phases of the engine. The exhaust temperature is too low to allow thermal activation of the reactor and, consequently, to promote high conversion efficiency and significant NOx concentration reduction. This is increasingly evident the smaller the engine displacement, because of its lower exhaust system temperature (reduced gross power while producing the same net power, i.e., higher efficiency).
Technical Paper

Spray Characterization of a Single-Hole Gasoline Injector under Flash Boiling Conditions

In the next future, improvements of direct injection systems for spark-ignited engines are necessary for the potential reductions in fuel consumptions and exhaust emissions. The admission and spread of the fuel in the combustion chamber is strictly related to the injector design and performances, such as to the fuel and environmental pressure and temperature conditions. In this paper the spray characterization of a GDI injector under normal and flash-boiling injection conditions has been investigated. The paper is mainly focused both on the capability of the injection apparatus/temperatures controller system to realize flash-boiling conditions, and the diagnostic setup to catch the peculiarities of the spray behavior. The work aims reporting the spray characterization under normal and flash-boiling conditions.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on the Potentiality of a GDI System Applied to a Two-Stroke Engine: Analysis on Pollutant Emission and Fuel Consumption Reduction

The small two-stroke engine represents a strategic typology of propulsion system for applications in which lightweight and high power density are required. However, the conventional two-stroke engine will not be compliant with forthcoming legislations about pollutant emissions and new solutions, such as electrification, are seriously taken into account by industry to overcome the two-stroke engine drawbacks. In this scenario, a promising way to allow the two-stroke engine to be competitive is represented by the use of direct injection systems, in order to overcome the long-standing issue of short circuiting fuel. The authors in previous studies developed a low-pressure direct injection (LPDI) system for a 300 cm3 two-stroke engine that was ensuring the same power output of the engine in carbureted configuration and raw pollutant emissions consistent with a four-stroke engine of similar performance.
Journal Article

Non-Intrusive Methodology for Estimation of Speed Fluctuations in Automotive Turbochargers under Unsteady Flow Conditions

The optimization of turbocharging systems for automotive applications has become crucial in order to increase engine performance and meet the requirements for pollutant emissions and fuel consumption reduction. Unfortunately, performing an optimal turbocharging system control is very difficult, mainly due to the fact that the flow through compressor and turbine is highly unsteady, while only steady flow maps are usually provided by the manufacturer. For these reasons, one of the most important quantities to be used onboard for optimal turbocharger system control is the rotational speed fluctuation, since it provides information both on turbocharger operating point and on the energy of the unsteady flow in the intake and exhaust circuits. This work presents a methodology that allows determining the instantaneous turbocharger rotational speed through a proper frequency processing of the signal coming from one accelerometer mounted on the turbocharger compressor.
Technical Paper

Water Injection to Improve Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine Efficiency

The increasing use of downsized turbocharged gasoline engines for passengers cars and the new European homologation cycles (WLTC and RDE) both impose an optimization of the whole engine map. More weight is given to mid and high loads, thus enhancing knock and overfueling limitations. At low and moderate engine speeds, knock mitigation is one of the main issues, generally addressed by retarding spark advance thereby penalizing the combustion efficiency. At high engine speeds, knock still occurs but is less problematic. However, in order to comply with thermo-mechanical properties of the turbine, excess fuel is injected to limit the exhaust gas temperature while maximizing engine power, even with cooled exhaust manifolds. This also implies a decrease of the combustion efficiency and an increase in pollutant emissions. Water injection is one way to overcome both limitations.