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Technical Paper

Design Strategies for Meeting ECE R14 Safety Test for Light Commercial Vehicle

2010-10-05
2010-01-2017
The ECE R-14, AIS015 safety standard specifies the requirements of the safety belt anchorages namely, minimum numbers, their locations, static strength to reduce the possibility of their failure during accidental crashes for effective occupant restraint and the test procedures. This standard applies to the anchorages of safety belts for adult occupants of forward facing or rearward facing seats in vehicles of categories M and N. ECE R14 ensures the passenger safety during sudden acceleration/retardation and accidents. Early simulations revealed some structural short falls that demanded cabin improvements in order to fulfill regulation requirements for the seal belt anchorage test. This paper describes the innovative design modifications done to meet the seat belt anchorage test. Good correlation with the test is achieved in terms of deformations. These simulation methods helped in reducing the number of intermediate physical tests during the design process.
Technical Paper

Simulations Based Approach for Vehicle Idle NVH Optimization at Early Stage of Product Development

2011-05-17
2011-01-1591
The noise and vibration performance of diesel fueled automotives is critical for overall customer comfort. The stationary vehicle with engine running idle (Vehicle Idle) is a very common operating condition in city driving cycle. Hence it is most common comfort assessment criteria for diesel vehicles. Simulations and optimization of it in an early stage of product development cycle is priority for all OEMs. In vehicle idle condition, powertrain is the only major source of Noise and Vibrations. The key to First Time Right Idle NVH simulations and optimization remains being able to optimize all Transfer paths, from powertrain mounts to Driver Ear. This Paper talks about the approach established for simulations and optimization of powertrain forces entering in to frame by optimizing powertrain mount hard points and stiffness. Powertrain forces optimized through set process are further used to predict the vehicle passenger compartment noise and steering vibrations.
Technical Paper

Gear Shift Fork Stiffness Optimisation

2011-09-13
2011-01-2235
This paper presents a simulation of the stiffness of the shift fork of a manual transmission using contact pattern analysis and optistrut. All the subsystem (i.e. synchronizer and the shift system component) are constrained to optimize the shift fork stiffness. A-5-speed manual transmission is used as an example to illustrate the simulation, co-relation and validation of the optimization of the gear shift fork stiffness. The shift system was modeled in the software to collate the synchronization force, shift system gap etc with the constraint on the shift fork. It is constrained by the synchronizer sleeve and the fork mounting on the gear shift rail. The synchronizer force is then applied on the gear shift fork pads which are translated to the synchronizer sleeve. It has a number of pads which come into contact at different occasion of the synchronization because of the varying stiffness of the fork.
Technical Paper

Investing Factors Affecting Door Slam Noise of SUV and Improved Performance by DFSS Approach

2011-05-17
2011-01-1595
Recent development in automobile industries has seen increased customer attention for good door slamming noise. One of the constituent which plays major role in building brand image of vehicle in terms of NVH performance is door slam noise quality. Hence it is very desirable to understand how different door elements radiate sound during a door-closing event and how to optimize a door structure to achieve specific sound target in order to ensure the door closing noise quality, NVH engineers needed to look at contributions from different door subsystems. The use of statistical tools like Six Sigma can further help them to ensure the consistency in results. This paper explains the systematic approach used to characterize different element of door which contributes to the overall door slam noise quality through QFD (Quality Function Deployment) and contribution analysis. The different mechanisms contributing to door slam noise were studied.
Technical Paper

Derivation of Extreme Static Durability Load Cases for FEA Based Vehicle Strength Evaluation

2011-09-13
2011-01-2174
Validation of vehicle structure by use of finite element analysis is at the core of reduction of product development time. In the early phase of validation it is required to evaluate the strength of the vehicle structure to account for the loading during physical validation and service loading. In service the vehicle is subjected to variable loads. These act upon the components that originate from road roughness, maneuvers and power train loads. All systems in the vehicle represent more or less complicated elastic structures subjected to time varying loads. A time domain dynamic assessment of the vehicle structure is time consuming and expensive. Also in the early phase of design wherein several design iterations need to be carried out for design validation, it is practically impossible to conduct a dynamic analysis and fatigue life assessment. Extreme static load cases are traditionally being used for this process.
Technical Paper

Powertrain Noise & Sound Quality Refinement for New Generation Common Rail Engines

2010-06-09
2010-01-1414
Noise & sound quality has gained equal importance as that of emissions and crash safety of the vehicles. With increased engine power to weight ratio, the challenges for NVH engineers has increased multifold. Passenger compartment comfort levels are getting affected largely due to lighter and powerful engines. Same time, there is pressure to reduce overall vehicle weight and cost. This impose constraints to NVH engineer in designing the body structure and sound package to reduce the effect of powertrain forces and airborne noise on passenger compartment. In addition to weight constraints, there is trend emerging to use two & three cylinder engines which need to perform on par with four cylinder engines. This has shown adverse effect on vehicle NVH performance due to wider low frequency unbalance forces.
Technical Paper

A Systematic Approach for Weight Reduction of BIW Panels through Optimization

2010-04-12
2010-01-0389
This paper describes application of Design of Experiments (DOE) technique and optimization for mass reduction of a Sports utility vehicle (SUV) body in white (BIW). Thickness of the body panels is taken as design variable for the study. The BIW global torsion, bending and front end modes are key indicators of the stiffness and mass of the structure. By considering the global modes the structural strength of the vehicle also gets accounted, since the vehicle is subjected to bending and twisting moments during proving ground test. The DOE is setup in a virtual environment and the results for different configurations are obtained through simulations. The results obtained from the DOE exercise are used to check the sensitivity of the panels. The panels are selected for mass reduction based on the analysis of the results. This final configuration is further evaluated for determining the stiffness and strength of the BIW.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Correlation and Optimization of an SUV Rear Bumper Structure

2010-04-12
2010-01-0501
Structural durability of different components and systems for a Utility Vehicle is critical to design, due to severe customer usage in rural zones and off road driving conditions. Physical validation of new component designs is time consuming, costly and iterative. Also, this process does not ensure an optimized structure. Through virtual validation it is possible in the initial phase of design to validate the structure and optimize the design. The core of a virtual validation process is to obtain accurate correlation which can replace developmental laboratory testing. Hence, only a confirmatory test can be carried out. This enables design optimization based on simulations. This paper presents the systematic approach used for optimization of SUV rear bumper and bumper mounting structure. Dynamic correlation is obtained for bumper structure subjected to the vibration levels as mapped from the proving ground test. The objective of new bumper development is for value engineering.
Technical Paper

A Systematic Approach for Design of Engine Crankcase Through Stress Optimization

2010-04-12
2010-01-0500
The cylinder block for the power train has always been a classic example of concurrent engineering in which disciplines like NVH, Durability, thermal management and lubrication system layout contribute interactively for concept design. Since the concept design is based on engineering judgment and is an estimated design, the design iterations for optimization are inevitable. This paper aims at outlining a systematic approach for design of crankcase for fatigue which would eliminate design iterations for durability. This allows a larger scope for design improvement at the concept stage as the design specifications are not matured at this stage. A process of stress optimization is adopted which gives accurate dimensional input to design. The approach is illustrated with a case study where an existing crankcase was optimized for fatigue and significant weight reduction was achieved.
Technical Paper

Correlation of Test with CAE of Dynamic Strains on Transmission Housing for 4WD Automotive Powertrain

2010-04-12
2010-01-0497
Reducing the vibrations in the powertrain is one of the prime necessities in today's automobiles from NVH and strength perspectives. The necessity of 4×4 powertrain is increasing for better control on normal road and off-road vehicles. This leads to bulky powertrains. The vehicle speeds are increasing, that requires engines to run at higher speeds. Also to save on material costs and improve on fuel economy there is a need for optimizing the mass of the engine/vehicle. The reduced stiffness and higher speeds lead to increased noise and vibrations. One more challenge a powertrain design engineer has to face during design of its transmission housings is the bending / torsional mode vibrations of powertrain assembly. This aggravates other concerns such as shift lever vibrations, shift lever rattle, rise in in-cab noise, generation of boom noise at certain speeds, etc. Hence, reducing vibrations becomes an important and difficult aspect in design of an automobile.
Technical Paper

Selection of Optimal Design Parameters to Achieve Improved Occupant Performance in Frontal Impacts

2013-04-08
2013-01-0756
Crashworthiness enhancement of vehicle structures is a very challenging task during the early design development process. Major factors influencing occupant injury in frontal impact are vehicle front crush space, crash pulse severity, restraint properties and occupant packaging space. This paper establishes a methodology to define suitable criterion that will guide the designers to select the optimal values of the above mentioned parameters during the early phase of the vehicle development. The usage of lumped mass models, pulse characterization techniques were explored to validate the results. Efficient crash energy management, the concepts of ride down and restraint efficiency parameters were also discussed in the paper.
Technical Paper

Turbocharging a Small Two Cylinder DI Diesel Engine - Experiences in Improving the Power, Low End Torque and Specific Fuel Consumption

2011-09-11
2011-24-0133
Turbocharged common rail direct injection engines offer multiple benefits compared to their naturally aspirated counterparts by allowing for a significant increase in the power and torque output, while simultaneously improving the specific fuel consumption and smoke. They also make it possible for the engine to operate at a leaner air/fuel mixture ratio, thereby reducing particulate matter emission and permitting higher EGR flow rates. In the present work, a two cylinder, naturally aspirated common rail injected engine for use on a load carrier platform has been fitted with a turbocharger for improving the power and torque output, so that the engine can be used in a vehicle with a higher kerb weight. The basic architecture and hardware remain unchanged between the naturally aspirated and turbocharged versions. A fixed geometry, waste gated turbocharger with intercooling is used.
Technical Paper

Hybrid Oil Sump for CI Engine

2011-09-11
2011-24-0135
Recently fuel economy and stringent emission norms are the ever growing concern in automotive global scenario. So, automotive engineers are constantly seeking new cost effective methodologies and techniques to achieve considerable weight reduction and improved performance. Nowadays Automotive OEMs are using Aluminum Oil sump (which is a structured part of an engine and supports considerable amount of transmission housing weight) for better emission, reducing the engine height, engine weight and NVH levels. Our present work reveals the concept of ‘Hybrid oil sump’ which made by sheet metal and aluminum in such a way that weight and cost reduced by 20% and 30 % respectively, without compromising NVH and strength properties. Exactly it deals the iteration part of design to arrive the optimum model, various structural modifications since it carries considerable amount of weight of transmission.
Technical Paper

Duty Cycle Fatigue Simulation for Differential Casing

2012-04-16
2012-01-0813
In the current scenario of growing demand for lightweight designs for improving fuel economy and reduced cost, the focus is on optimum design solutions. This calls for improved and accurate prediction capabilities in terms of life or cycles the design can sustain in real world usage profile. Conventionally, the differential casings are simulated and designed for worst loads experienced and the approach used is infinite life design for these loads. But, this would lead to overdesign and increase weight. To counter this problem the methodology for fatigue analysis for the derived duty cycle of differential casing is developed. The critical regions can be identified based on life and the solutions can be worked out without major design changes. This paper briefs the nonlinear static load cases required for deriving the block cycle loading and incorporating these as a duty cycle in fatigue solver.
Technical Paper

A Development of Booming Index of Diesel SUV by using Artificial Neural Network

2012-06-13
2012-01-1542
In today's competitive scenario, understanding mental modal map of individual customer perception plays a major role to create the brand image of vehicle. Among them “comfortable sound” is one of the important criteria for customer satisfaction, especially in case of diesel vehicle, where in-cab sound quality plays a crucial factor. Often customer perception concerning comfort in automotive industry relies on subjective comfort evaluation method. Converting the customer perception into objective measurements and to correlate them is often tough task for NVH engineers. It is because of human sensation behavior differs from persons to person, mental map, geographical location and domain knowledge. In addition acoustic & comfort relevant aspects are often subjectively evaluated based on jury trials conducted on the prototype vehicle and class competitive benchmark vehicles to get the feel & confidence of product for different gateways.
Technical Paper

C-Shaped Synchronizer Spring-theoretical Analysis and Validation

2012-09-24
2012-01-2002
This paper presents the analysis and experimental validation of c-spring and its stiffness properties in the gear shift synchronizer system. A synchronizer assembly for a transmission comprises of a synchronizer hub carried by a torque delivery shaft and a cone clutch member carried by a gear and a synchronizer blocking ring. The gear shift sleeve is meshing over the teeth of the clutch hub. The c-spring is positioned in the inner circumference of the rim position of the clutch hub and strut keys will be positioned at the slots on the clutch hub, which are usually 120 degree apart. As the sleeve moves while gear shifting, it pushes down the strut keys which compress the C-spring radially inward; this gives the strut load. The strut keys, which are pushed down by the sleeve, will apply force on the c-spring from radial directions. Since the c-spring is in the shape of an arc it is assumed as a curved beam for the analysis.
Technical Paper

Servomotor Controlled Standard Automated Manual Transmission for Rapid Smooth Shifts

2012-09-24
2012-01-1989
Present day AMT unit uses two high pressure hydraulically operated pistons for select & shift operations which make the unit weigh around 8kg. Besides this it also makes the unit more complex & unreliable with a lot of torque interruption. The use of electrical servo motors steps in here as a better alternative as it provides a more precise and smoother shift. To test this we used a 5 Gear-Manual Transmission. For the selection, a precise 14.5 degree of twisting was required which was easily achieved by the servo motor. Further, shift of 10.5mm could be made possible by using the motor to shift the rack using a pinion on the shaft. This system then essentially eliminates the whole hydraulic circuit, the housing of actuator pack & power pack making it a simpler unit all together. A Motor is attached to the output shaft of the Transmission which drives in power while the AMT unit is making transition from one gear to another.
Technical Paper

Experimental Analysis of Lead Acid Batteries for Estimating State of Charge and State of Health

2013-11-27
2013-01-2742
Batteries have become increasingly important in automotives with increase in vehicle electrical loads. Therefore the reliability of battery is a critical issue in automotive applications. It has been noticed that most batteries have limited cycle durability, that is, the total capacity drops when a battery is charged and discharged for a number of cycles. If a battery is too weak to offer sufficient energy, it should be replaced at the right time. But current problem is that there is no reliable method to quantify the capacity loss and to estimate the remaining capacity of battery. Complete discharge, which is the only way of capacity estimation, which will effect the battery plates therefore it cannot be used too frequently. This paper summarizes the experimental work in the development of the battery status estimation algorithm.
Technical Paper

Effects of Governing Parameters on the Performance and Emissions of Hydrogen Engine for Automotive Application

2013-11-27
2013-01-2891
This report describes work performed jointly by Mahindra & Mahindra and IIT Delhi, including both simulations and single-cylinder engine development for three wheeler application, to quantify the effects of various parameters on the performance and NOx emission of an internal combustion engine fuelled by hydrogen. AVL Boost software was used to simulate the experimental conditions, by using Vibe 2-Zone combustion and Woschni heat models, together with kinetic equations for emission calculations. Developed AVL Boost Model was validated against the test result from a modified single cylinder CNG engine for three wheeler application fuelled with Hydrogen by comparing the performance and NOx emission at the same operating conditions. A good agreement was obtained between the results of the Boost Model and Experimental results.
Technical Paper

Investigation on microstructure, mechanical and wear properties of alloyed gray cast iron for brake applications

2013-11-27
2013-01-2881
The strength and wear resistance of four alloyed cast irons with elements like Ni. Mo, Cu, Cr and Al have been compared and analyzed. The increased hardness is reducing the wear resistance of the alloy due to graphite flakes. Higher carbon produces more graphite flakes which act as weak points for reducing strength and wear resistance. The wear rate increases for harder cast iron sample with more graphite flakes. Wear rate drastically increases with increase in carbon equivalent. Strength was found to decrease for samples with higher graphite flakes. The wear debris consisted of graphite flakes in platelet like morphology along with iron particles from the matrix. The presence of carbon at the sliding interface also sometimes decreases wear rate.
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