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Technical Paper

Investigation on microstructure, mechanical and wear properties of alloyed gray cast iron for brake applications

2013-11-27
2013-01-2881
The strength and wear resistance of four alloyed cast irons with elements like Ni. Mo, Cu, Cr and Al have been compared and analyzed. The increased hardness is reducing the wear resistance of the alloy due to graphite flakes. Higher carbon produces more graphite flakes which act as weak points for reducing strength and wear resistance. The wear rate increases for harder cast iron sample with more graphite flakes. Wear rate drastically increases with increase in carbon equivalent. Strength was found to decrease for samples with higher graphite flakes. The wear debris consisted of graphite flakes in platelet like morphology along with iron particles from the matrix. The presence of carbon at the sliding interface also sometimes decreases wear rate.
Technical Paper

Study of Optimal Magnification for Retained Austenite Evaluation in Low carbon Case Hardening steel Using Metallurgical Microscopy

2014-04-01
2014-01-1017
This study on optimum magnification at which Retained austenite to be evaluated by comparing the difference in determining the retained austenite in low carbon carburizing alloy steel using the optical metallurgical micrographic method and X-ray diffraction method. The retained austenite phase will be in surface and color is white in nature also its presented in between the martensite needles. It can be distinguished as separate micro-constituents by using image analyzing software. In another method the RA measurements were carried out on the surface by PROTO iXRD Retained austenite measuring system using Cr K radiation. The (211) and (200) reflections of Martensite and (220) and (200) reflections of Austenite were made for this estimation. However, the calculated values of retained austenite by metallurgical microscope in different magnifications are not identical.
Technical Paper

Effect of Aluminum on Mechanical and Tribological Properties of Automotive Grade Gray Cast Iron

2015-01-14
2015-26-0066
Mechanical and wear properties of Al alloyed gray cast iron (0.5% and 1.0%) were compared with that of Mo (1.0%) and Cu (0.77%) alloyed gray cast iron in this investigation. All the alloys showed pearlitic microstructure. The graphite morphology varied due to varying chemistry. The fracture surface showed “cabbage” like dimpled morphology indicating the predominant ductile fracture. It was found that the Mo containing cast iron show 25 to 30% higher strength and 6 to 7 times better wear resistance compared to Al containing cast irons. The worn surface showed oxide formation during sliding.
Technical Paper

New Trends of Material & Heat Treatment in Automotive Transmission Shaft

2013-09-24
2013-01-2446
This paper deals with new trends in materials & heat treatment in automotive transmission shafting. The material is S48C a low carbon alloy steel and material for automotive shaft special significance as it reduces overall cost in vehicle transmission shafts. Conventional method of shaft heat heat-treatment is case hardening for 20MnCr5. S48C is low-carbon alloy steel. This is an alternate proposal to 20MnCr5.There are lot of advantages in induction hardening over case hardening. Also induction hardening process with S48C material becomes cheaper than case-hardening with 20MnCr5.Strength and resistance to stress must therefore be carefully considered during the material selection and heat-treatment process. We have done Static torsion test for 20MnCr5 (case hardened steel) and S48C (induction hardened shaft). Test results were comparable with 20MnCr5 (case hardened steel). Also after test a metallurgical inspection was done on an S48C (induction hardened shaft).
Technical Paper

Weight Reduction of Shifter Forks using Steel Inserts

2013-09-24
2013-01-2444
Shift quality of a manual transmission is a critical characteristic that is requires utmost care by the designers while structuring the transmission. Shift quality is affected by many factors viz. synchronizer design, shift fork design, shifter design, gear design, transmission oil selection etc. Designers have realized that shift fork is critical element for improving shift feel of a transmission. This paper focuses upon the reduction in weight of the overall transmission shift system by using steel inserts in aluminum shifter forks. No compromise on the stiffness and strength of the shift fork of a manual transmission is done. Stiffness and strength of shifter fork is optimized using contact pattern analysis and stiffness analysis on MSC Nastran. All the subsystem (i.e. synchronizer and the shift system component) are constrained to optimize the shift fork stiffness. A 5-speed manual transmission is used as an example to illustrate the same.
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