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Technical Paper

A Systematic Approach for Weight Reduction of BIW Panels through Optimization

2010-04-12
2010-01-0389
This paper describes application of Design of Experiments (DOE) technique and optimization for mass reduction of a Sports utility vehicle (SUV) body in white (BIW). Thickness of the body panels is taken as design variable for the study. The BIW global torsion, bending and front end modes are key indicators of the stiffness and mass of the structure. By considering the global modes the structural strength of the vehicle also gets accounted, since the vehicle is subjected to bending and twisting moments during proving ground test. The DOE is setup in a virtual environment and the results for different configurations are obtained through simulations. The results obtained from the DOE exercise are used to check the sensitivity of the panels. The panels are selected for mass reduction based on the analysis of the results. This final configuration is further evaluated for determining the stiffness and strength of the BIW.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Drag Simulation and Validation of a Crossover

2010-04-12
2010-01-0757
Aerodynamic simulation using commercial CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) codes is now an integral part of the vehicle design process. Aerodynamic prediction and vehicle development program runs in parallel. This requires a good agreement between experimental measurements and CFD prediction of aerodynamic behavior of a vehicle. The comparison between experimental and simulation results show differences, as it may not be possible to replicate effect of all the wind tunnel parameters in the simulation. This paper presents the details of aerodynamic simulation process of a Crossover and its validation with the experimental results available from the wind tunnel tests. The results are compared for different configurations such as- closing the grille openings, removing the rearview mirror, adding ski-rack and using different tyres. This study also includes the effect of different wind speeds and yaw angles on the coefficient of drag.
Technical Paper

Correlation of Test with CAE of Dynamic Strains on Transmission Housing for 4WD Automotive Powertrain

2010-04-12
2010-01-0497
Reducing the vibrations in the powertrain is one of the prime necessities in today's automobiles from NVH and strength perspectives. The necessity of 4×4 powertrain is increasing for better control on normal road and off-road vehicles. This leads to bulky powertrains. The vehicle speeds are increasing, that requires engines to run at higher speeds. Also to save on material costs and improve on fuel economy there is a need for optimizing the mass of the engine/vehicle. The reduced stiffness and higher speeds lead to increased noise and vibrations. One more challenge a powertrain design engineer has to face during design of its transmission housings is the bending / torsional mode vibrations of powertrain assembly. This aggravates other concerns such as shift lever vibrations, shift lever rattle, rise in in-cab noise, generation of boom noise at certain speeds, etc. Hence, reducing vibrations becomes an important and difficult aspect in design of an automobile.
Technical Paper

In-house Design and Development of Pedestrian Protection Test Rig

2013-01-09
2013-26-0021
Regulations on pedestrian safety have been introduced globally since the year 1990 and in India it will have to be met around the year 2016. Process of making vehicle compliant to this regulation requires rigorous design development and testing. Testing involves propelling head-forms (Child and Adult) on bonnet at 35 km/h and 40 km/h and leg-forms (Upper and Lower) on bumper at 40 km/h according to the different National / International / NCAP regulatory requirements A pedestrian protection test rig has been indigenously designed and developed in-house to perform pedestrian protection impact testing in-house. The paper describes the salient features of the pedestrian protection test rig, its functioning, operation and process of acquiring the data for determination of the values required by crash safety regulations.
Technical Paper

Experimental Determination of Rigid Body Properties of a Powertrain Unit for NVH Refinement

2014-04-01
2014-01-0039
This paper establishes quick and accurate methods to experimentally determine the rigid body properties of a powertrain unit namely, the centre of gravity, the moment of inertia and the torque roll axis and also the rigid body dynamics of mounting system such as the rigid body modes, kinetic energy distribution, and elastic roll axis. The centre of gravity is determined using single point suspension and laser pointer to locate the axis passing through the centre of gravity. A special unifilar pendulum test rig is developed for determining the moment of inertia where an accelerometer measures the rotational oscillations for a given time period and the moment of inertia is determined by solving a set of inertial ellipsoid equations. An easy method of reorienting the powertrain is demonstrated in this paper.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Vehicle Systems Structural Durability Using PSD Based Fatigue Life Approach

2012-04-16
2012-01-0953
In current competitive environment automobile industry is under heavy pressure to reduce time to market. First time right design is an important aspect to achieve the time and cost targets. CAE is a tool which helps designer to come up with first time right design. This also calls for high degree of confidence in CAE simulation results which can only be achieved by undertaking correlation exercises. In automobiles most of the structures are subjected to vibration from dynamic loads. All the dynamic road loads are random in nature and can be very easily expressed in terms of power spectral density functions. In the current scenario structural durability of the parts subjected to vibration is done partially through modal performance and partially though frequency response analysis. The only question that arises is what amplitude to use at what frequency and how to map all the accelerated tests dynamic load frequency spectrum to simulation domain.
Technical Paper

Deriving the Compressed Accelerated Test Cycle from Measured Road Load Data

2012-04-16
2012-01-0063
Validation of vehicle structure is at the core of reduction of product development time. Robust and accelerated validation becomes an important task. In service the vehicle is subjected to variable loads. These act upon the components that originate from road roughness, manoeuvres and powertrain loads. Majority of the body in white and chassis structural failures are caused due to vertical loading. Measured road load data in test track have variable amplitude histories. These histories often contain a large percentage of small amplitude cycles which are non damaging. This paper describes a systematic approach to derive the compressed load cycle from the measured road load data in order to produce representative and meaningful yet economical load cycle for fatigue simulation. In-house flow was developed to derive the compressed load time history.
Technical Paper

A Cost Effective System Test-Bed using Model Based Approach

2016-04-05
2016-01-0048
The effort involved in automotive software test/calibration at road level is very high and cost involved is also commendable because of the involved proto level samples. Further the on-road test/calibration process is sensitive to external factors like drive pattern and environmental conditions. It is always a challenge for any OEM, to come up with an efficient process, which optimizes development cost, time and reliability of the product. The model based test/calibration process is always a dream for any engineer to work on, as it has big advantage of cost, reproducibility and repeatability of test cases [1]. But the challenge lies in achieving the closeness to reality with limited availability of crucial data for model parameterization. Activity at test bed level bridges the gap between the on-road and model based test/calibration achieving high maturity level at optimal cost/time. Current vehicle has many systems, which work in synergy to create an impact on end customer.
Technical Paper

Underbody Drag Reduction Study for Electric Car Using CFD Simulations

2015-01-14
2015-26-0211
Electric cars are the future of urban mobility which have very less carbon foot print. Unlike the conventional cars which uses BIW (Body in White), some of the electric cars are made with a space frame architecture, which is light weight and suitable for low volume production. In this architecture, underbody consists of frames, battery pack, electronics housing and electric motor. Underbody drag increases due to air entrapment around these components. Aerodynamic study for baseline model using CFD simulations showed that there was a considerable air resistance due to underbody components. To reduce the underbody drag, different add-ons are used and their effect on drag is studied. A front spoiler (air dam) is used to deflect the incoming air towards sides of the car. A under hood cover for front components, trailing arm cover for trailing arm and rear bumper cover for rear components were used to reduce underbody drag.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on the Effect of Tire Pressure on Ride Dynamics of a Passenger Car

2019-04-02
2019-01-0622
Ride is essentially the outcome of coupled dynamics of various involved sub-systems which make it too complex to deal analytically. Tires, amongst these, are known to be highly nonlinear compliant systems. Selection of tires specifications such as rated tyre pressure, etc. are generally decided through subjective assessment. While experts agree that tyre pressure affects the attributes such as ride to a noticeable degree, the quantification of the change often remains missing. In the current work, vibration levels of various sub-systems relevant to ride in an SUV are measured for three different tyre pressures at different speeds over the three randomly generated roads. For the purpose, artificial road profiles of classes A, B and C are synthesized from the spectrum of road classes defined in ISO 8608:2016 and reproduced on a four-poster test rig.
Technical Paper

Pressure Drop Characteristics of Perforated Pipes with Particular Application to the Concentric Tube Resonator

2015-06-15
2015-01-2309
The bias flow in Concentric Tube Resonator (CTR) is a flow-induced phenomenon in which the pressure gradient along the radial direction is produced by the kinetic energy of the flow. As a result, the flow dynamics in CTR is characterized by bias flow into the annular cavity in the upstream and outflow from the annular cavity in the downstream of the flow. This is due to the change in direction of the radial component of the bias flow at a point called the point of recovery, as a consequence of mass conservation. The pressure drop of CTR is a complex function of the momentum flux and other geometric parameters such as porosity, open area ratio, discharge coefficient of the perforated holes, bias inflow, bias outflow, grazing flow and length. In this study, numerical experiments are conducted to obtain an empirical formula for the friction factor of perforated pipes which are extensively used in automotive mufflers.
Technical Paper

A Case Study on Durability Analysis of Automotive Lower Control Arm Using Self Transducer Approach

2018-04-03
2018-01-1208
A competitive market and shrinking product development cycle have forced automotive companies to move from conventional testing methods to virtual simulation techniques. Virtual durability simulation of any component requires determination of loads acting on the structure when tested on the proving ground. In conventional method wheel force transducers are used to extract loads at wheel center. Extracted wheel center forces are used to derive component loads through multi-body simulation. Another conventional approach is to use force transducers mounted directly on the component joineries where load needs to be extracted. Both the methods are costly and time-consuming. Sometimes it is not feasible to place a load cell in the system to measure hard point loads because of its complexities. In that case, it would be advantageous to use structure itself as a load transducer by strain gauging the component and use those strain values to extract hard point loads in virtual simulation.
Technical Paper

Generating a Real World Drive Cycle–A Statistical Approach

2018-04-03
2018-01-0325
Drive cycles have been an integral part of emission tests and virtual simulations for decades. A drive cycle is a representation of running behavior of a typical vehicle, involving the drive pattern, road characteristics and traffic characteristics. Drive cycles are typically used to assess vehicle performance parameters, perform system sizing and perform accelerated testing on a test bed or a virtual test environment, hence reducing the expenses on road tests. This study is an attempt to design a relatively robust process to generate a real world drive cycle. It is based on a Six Sigma design approach which utilizes data acquired from real world road trials. It explicitly describes the process of generating a drive cycle which closely represents the real world road drive scenario. The study also focuses on validation of the process by simulation and statistical analysis.
Technical Paper

Integration of 1D and 3D CFD Software for Cabin Cool Down Simulation

2018-04-03
2018-01-0773
This study presents a method for a cool down simulation of passenger compartments. The purpose was to integrate the 3D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software StarCCM+ with the 1D thermal management software KULI. The targets were to achieve accurate prediction of temperature diffusion inside the cabin for a transient cycle simultaneously reducing the modelling effort and CPU-time consumption. The 1D simulation model was developed in KULI and the flow field data required to simulate mass flow and diffusion inside the cabin was implemented from Star CCM+. The simulation model consists of a multi-zone cabin and models the complete refrigerant circuit consisting of evaporator, condenser, Thermal Expansion Valve (TXV) and compressor. This paper describes the process flow, definition of the inputs required and finally the validation of the simulation data with experiments.
Technical Paper

Investigations on the Effect of Synchronizer Strut Detent Groove Profile on Static and Dynamic Gear Shift Quality of a Manual Transmission

2020-09-25
2020-28-0319
Automotive manufacturers are constantly working towards enhancing the driving experience of the customers. In this context, improving the static and dynamic gear shift quality plays a major role in ensuring a pleasant and comfortable driving experience. Moreover, the gear shift quality of any manual transmission is mainly defined by the design of the synchronizer system. The synchronizer sleeve strut detent groove profile plays a vital role in defining the performance of the synchronizer system by generating the minimum required pre-synchronization force. This force is important to move the outer synchronizer ring (blocker ring) to the required index position and to wipe-out the oil from the conical friction surfaces to build rapid high cone torque. Both these functional requirements are extremely critical to have a smooth and quick synchronization of the rotating parts under dynamic shift conditions.
Technical Paper

Gear Shift Quality Enhancement Using Sensitivity Analysis

2020-09-25
2020-28-0387
The global automotive industry is growing rapidly in recent years and the market competition has increased drastically. The engines with high torque delivery and deeper transmission ratios has become more and more common for a pleasant drivability experience. In a market highly driven from a comfort and an economic point of view, it is essential to develop a transmission and its components in an optimal way. One of the Unique Selling Point (USP) of a vehicle is the gear shift quality & it is highly important to have an optimum shift quality for an enhanced customer experience. Synchronizer plays a vital role for gear shifting performance in manual gearbox without any shifting assistance. The primary function of a synchronizer is to reduce the RPM difference between two gears before gear shifting with minimum time.
Technical Paper

Sensitivity Analysis and Experimental Verification of Automotive Transmission Gearbox Synchronizer Gear Shift Quality

2020-09-25
2020-28-0386
Synchronizer is the key element for the smoother gear shift operation in the constant mesh transmission. In the gear shift operation, the double bump occurs at the contact between the sleeve teeth and the clutch body ring teeth after the full synchronization. The double bump is random in nature and the dynamics is difficult to predict. The double bump gives a reaction force to the driver and affects the gear shift quality. This paper focus on the sensitivity analysis of the synchronizer ring index percentage and the clutch body ring asymmetric chamfer angle to reduce the occurrence and magnitude of the double bump. The system level simulation model is developed using 1D simulation tool. The modeling is done after complete declutching event so that there is no power supply to the transmission. The model can handle both upstream and downstream reflected inertia depending upon the gear shift event.
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