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Journal Article

Lithium Ion Battery for Hybrid and Electric Mobility under Indian Ambient Conditions - A Perspective

Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs), Extended Range Electric Vehicles (EREVs), Battery Electric Vehicles' (BEVs) development is gaining traction across all geographies to help meet ever increasing fuel economy regulations and as a pathway to offset concerns due to climate change and improve the overall green quotient of automobiles. These technologies have primarily shifted towards Li-ion batteries for Energy Storage (due to energy density and mass). In order to make actual business sense of these technologies, of which, battery is a major cost driver, it is necessary for these batteries to provide similar performance and life expectancy across the operating and soak (storage) range of the vehicles, as well as provide the requirements at a competitive cost.
Technical Paper

Low Temperature Thermal Energy Storage (TES) System for Improving Automotive HVAC Effectiveness

The prime focus of automotive industries in recent times is to improve the energy efficiency of automotive subsystem and system as whole. Harvesting the waste energy and averaging the peak thermal loads using thermal energy storage (TES) materials and devices can help to improve the energy efficiency of automotive system and sub-system. The phase change materials (PCM) well suit the requirement of energy storage/release according to demand requirement. One such example of TES using PCM is extended automotive cabin comfort during vehicle idling and city traffics including start/stop of the engine at traffic stops. PCM as TES poses high density and capacity in thermal energy storage and release. It is due to latent heat absorption and release during phase change. Generally the latent heat of a material compare to it sensible heat is much higher, almost an order of 2. For example, latent heat of ice is almost 160 times higher than sensible heat for a kelvin temperature rise of ice.
Technical Paper

Scaling Model of Heat Exchangers in Automotive Air Conditioning Systems

Heat exchangers are thermoregulatory system of an automotive air conditioning system. They are responsible for heat exchange between refrigerant and air. Sizing of the heat exchanger becomes critical to achieve the required thermal performance. In the present work, the behavior of heat exchanger with respect to change in size is studied in detail by developing a scaling model. The limited experiments have been conducted for 3 different condensers. Commercially available 1D tool GT Suite is used for simulations. The heat exchangers are modeled using COOL3D module of GT Suite. The experimental thermal capacities of heat exchanger are compared with the simulated values. A good agreement up to ±2.3% is found between the experiments and simulations. Then developed scaling model in GT Suite is used for predicting the thermal behavior of heat exchangers by changing the size of the heat exchanger. Scaled thermal capacities of each model is compared with the corresponding experimental results.
Technical Paper

1D Transient Thermal Model of an Automotive Electric Engine Cooling Fan Motor

For the thermal management of an automobile, the induced airflow becomes necessary to enable the sufficient heat transfer with ambient. In this way, the components work within the designed temperature limit. It is the engine-cooling fan that enables the induced airflow. There are two types of engine-cooling fan, one that is driven by engine itself and the other one is electrically driven. Due to ease in handling, reduced power consumption, improved emission condition, electrically operated fan is becoming increasingly popular compared to engine driven fan. The prime mover for electric engine cooling fan is DC motor. Malfunction of DC motor due to overheating will lead to engine over heat, Poor HVAC performance, overheating of other critical components in engine bay. Based upon the real world driving condition, 1D transient thermal model of engine cooling fan motor is developed. This transient model is able to predict the temperature of rotor and casing with and without holes.
Technical Paper

Integration of 1D and 3D CFD Software for Cabin Cool Down Simulation

This study presents a method for a cool down simulation of passenger compartments. The purpose was to integrate the 3D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software StarCCM+ with the 1D thermal management software KULI. The targets were to achieve accurate prediction of temperature diffusion inside the cabin for a transient cycle simultaneously reducing the modelling effort and CPU-time consumption. The 1D simulation model was developed in KULI and the flow field data required to simulate mass flow and diffusion inside the cabin was implemented from Star CCM+. The simulation model consists of a multi-zone cabin and models the complete refrigerant circuit consisting of evaporator, condenser, Thermal Expansion Valve (TXV) and compressor. This paper describes the process flow, definition of the inputs required and finally the validation of the simulation data with experiments.
Technical Paper

Life Estimation and Thermal Management of a 48V Mild-Hybrid Battery Pack

The 48V mild-Hybrid system uses a 48V Lithium - Ion battery pack to boost the engine performance, to harness recuperative energy and to supply the accessory boardnet power requirement. Thermal management of the 48V battery pack is critical for its optimal utilization to realize the mild hybrid functionality, to meet CO2 reduction targets and useful life particularly under usage in hot ambient conditions. This paper discusses the various challenges and options of thermal management for the 48V battery pack based on the usage pattern and environmental conditions. The lifetime for a passively cooled battery pack is estimated for a typical Indian usage pattern. Active-air cooling is evaluated for the thermal management of the 48V mild-Hybrid battery pack. The tradeoffs are compared in terms of availability of hybrid functions and battery life.