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Technical Paper

A Systematic Approach for Weight Reduction of BIW Panels through Optimization

This paper describes application of Design of Experiments (DOE) technique and optimization for mass reduction of a Sports utility vehicle (SUV) body in white (BIW). Thickness of the body panels is taken as design variable for the study. The BIW global torsion, bending and front end modes are key indicators of the stiffness and mass of the structure. By considering the global modes the structural strength of the vehicle also gets accounted, since the vehicle is subjected to bending and twisting moments during proving ground test. The DOE is setup in a virtual environment and the results for different configurations are obtained through simulations. The results obtained from the DOE exercise are used to check the sensitivity of the panels. The panels are selected for mass reduction based on the analysis of the results. This final configuration is further evaluated for determining the stiffness and strength of the BIW.
Technical Paper

Correlation of Test with CAE of Dynamic Strains on Transmission Housing for 4WD Automotive Powertrain

Reducing the vibrations in the powertrain is one of the prime necessities in today's automobiles from NVH and strength perspectives. The necessity of 4×4 powertrain is increasing for better control on normal road and off-road vehicles. This leads to bulky powertrains. The vehicle speeds are increasing, that requires engines to run at higher speeds. Also to save on material costs and improve on fuel economy there is a need for optimizing the mass of the engine/vehicle. The reduced stiffness and higher speeds lead to increased noise and vibrations. One more challenge a powertrain design engineer has to face during design of its transmission housings is the bending / torsional mode vibrations of powertrain assembly. This aggravates other concerns such as shift lever vibrations, shift lever rattle, rise in in-cab noise, generation of boom noise at certain speeds, etc. Hence, reducing vibrations becomes an important and difficult aspect in design of an automobile.
Technical Paper

Optimization of the Passenger Airbag Module to Meet Interior Fittings Compliance Requirements of ECE R21

Airbags play a vital role in occupant protection during a crash event. Apart from the crash test the airbags have to additionally meet the requirements of the ECE R 12 headform impact test with Driver's Airbag (DAB) located in the steering wheel being deployed and the ECE R21 headform impact test for Passenger Airbag (PAB) in undeployed condition. Improper location of the PAB module below the Instrument Panel, the design of the air bag housing and the Instrument Panel are some of the factors that could lead to non compliance of the components of the uninflated PAB. The paper deals with the investigation conducted for compliance of the PAB to ECE R 21 with the uninflated air bag in meeting the requirements of 80 g at 19.3 km/h by proper location, changes to the design of the PAB cover, air bag housing brackets, etc.
Technical Paper

Development of Common Rail Engine for LCV BS III and a Step Towards BS IV Emission Compliance

This work discusses about the emission development of a 4 cylinder inline 3.3 liter CRDe to meet BS III emission norms applicable to 3.5 Ton and above category and upgradable to BS IV emission by suitable after treatment. This engine is developed from a 3.2l mechanical pump engine. During development the focus was on the usage of higher swept volume, selection of engine hardware like piston bowl, turbocharger, injectors and optimization of the injection parameters. A cost-effective solution for meeting the BS III norms in the LCV category without application of EGR and exhaust after treatment even though there is 15% increase of the power rating and 10% increase in Peak torque of the engine. Injection parameters like injection timing, injection quantity and pilot injection were optimized to meet the emission target.
Technical Paper

Structural Evaluation Technique Based on RWUP for Scooter Using RLDA

Scooter segment growth is tremendously increasing in India. The increased competition challenges automotive manufacturers to deliver the high quality and high reliable product to the market. Higher reliability involves increased durability testing which involves time and cost. Stress testing a part of durability is initially conducted on prototype vehicles for structural design validation and then later on production units to ensure its structural integrity. The obtained data from the tests can be used for future structural design improvements. Scooters with small tires, suspension limitations transfers more loads to structure, challenges engineers to design robust structure without compromising on weight much. It is necessary to look at Real World Usage Pattern (RWUP) and to create a stress life cycle block for simulation of accelerated testing, thereby optimizing the testing time and the development costs.
Technical Paper

Multidisciplinary Design Optimization of Automobile Tail Door

Stringent emission norms by government and higher fuel economy targets have urged automotive companies to look beyond conventional methods of optimization to achieve an optimal design with minimum mass, which also meets the desired level of performance targets at the system as well as at vehicle level. In conventional optimization method, experts from each domain work independently to improve the performance based on their domain knowledge which may not lead to optimum design considering the performance parameters of all domain. It is time consuming and tedious process as it is an iterative method. Also, it fails to highlight the conflicting design solutions. With an increase in computational power, automotive companies are now adopting Multi-Disciplinary Optimization (MDO) approach which is capable of handling heterogeneous domains in parallel. It facilitates to understand the limitations of performances of all domains to achieve good balance between them.
Technical Paper

Novel, Compact and Light Weight Plenum Assembly for Automobiles

Plenum is the part located between the front windshield and the bonnet of an automobile . It is primarily used as an air inlet to the HVAC during fresh air mode operation. It’s secondary functions include water drainage, aesthetic cover to hide the gap between windshield to bonnet, concealing wiper motors and mechanisms etc. The plenum consists mainly two sub parts viz. upper plenum and lower plenum. Conventional plenum design which is found in majority of global OEMs employ a plastic upper plenum and a metal lower plenum which spans across the entire width of engine compartment. This conventional lower plenum is bulky, consumes more packaging space and has more weight. In this paper, we propose a novel design for the plenum lower to overcome above mentioned limitations of the conventional design. This novel design employs a dry and wet box concept for its working and is made up of complete plastic material.
Technical Paper

Systematic Approach for Structural Optimization of Automotive Systems

In today’s cost-competitive automotive market, use of finite element simulations and optimization tools has become crucial to deliver durable and reliable products. Simulation driven design is the key to reduce number of physical prototypes, design iterations, cost and time to market. However, simulation driven design optimization tools have struggled to find global acceptance and are typically underutilized in many applications; especially in situations where the algorithms have to compete with existing know-how decision making processes. In this study, systematic multi-phase approach for optimization driven design is presented. Approach includes three optimization phases. In first phase, topology optimization is performed on concept BIW design volume to identify critical load paths. Architectural inputs from topology are used to design base CAD.
Technical Paper

Identification and Resolution of Vehicle Pull and Steering Wobble Using Virtual Simulation and Testing

A vehicle drifts due to several reasons from its intended straight path even in the case of no steering input. Vehicle pull is a condition where the driver must apply a constant correction torque to the steering wheel to maintain a straight-line course of the vehicle. This paper presents an investigation study into the characteristics of a vehicle experiencing steering drift. The aim of the work is to study vehicle stability and the causes of vehicle drift/pull during straight line to minimize vehicle pull level and hence optimize safety measures. A wobble in the steering wheel feels like the steering wheel is shaking to the left and right. This may get worse, if speed increases. This paper focuses on modelling and evaluating effects of suspension parameters, differential friction, brake drag variation, Unbalanced mass in the wheel assembly and C.G. location of the vehicle under multibody dynamic simulation environment.
Technical Paper

Detent Profile Optimization to Improve Shift Quality of Manual Transmissions

The customer of today is sensitive towards shift quality. The demand is for a crisp and precise gear shift with low shift effort. The impulses from synchronizers make shifts feel notchy. After synchronization the blocker ring releases the sleeve. The sleeve then hits the teeth of the clutch body ring. The second impulse causes a phenomenon called double bump. This can be felt at the hand and makes a shift feel notchy or sluggish. An ideal way to overcome this is to optimize the detent profile. This paper explains in detail the various factors that contribute to the perceived shift feel. Various methods to optimize the forces on the knob by changing the detent profile are discussed. Gear Shift Quality Assessment (referred as GSQA henceforth) is a tool to acquire the required shift feel data. Using this tool shift efforts and kinematics of a 5 speed manual transmission are plotted for illustration. The calculations required to optimize the detent profile are explained in detail.