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Technical Paper

Passenger Car Front End Optimization Using CFD Simulation

Increased engine thermal load, front end styling and compact vehicle requirements have led to significant challenges for vehicle front end designer to provide innovative thermal management solutions. The front end cooling module design which consists of condenser, radiator, fan and intercooler is an important part of design as it ensures adequate heat removal capacity of radiator over a wide range of operating conditions to prevent overheating of engine. The present study describes the optimization of cooling air flow opening in the front end using CFD methodology of a typical passenger car. The predicted vehicle system resistance curve and coolant inlet temperature to the radiator are used for the selection of cooling modules and to further optimize the front end cooling opening area. This leds to the successful optimization of the front end, selection of cooling modules with significant cost savings by reducing prototype testing and design cycle time.
Technical Paper

Integrated Approach for Accelerated Fatigue Testing of Resonating Structures

The durability evaluation of overhanging components of a vehicle (Ex: horn, radiator) is a challenge to durability engineers as resonance plays an important role in determining their fatigue life. As resonance cannot be avoided always, it is desirable to develop methods to evaluate life of the component in the presence of resonance. Though the existing vibration test standards suggest test profiles to evaluate resonance failures, there are cases in which, these methods do not yield the proving ground results. This may lead to unnecessary overdesign or unrealistic failures. In such cases it is suggested to generate a sweep endurance test procedure customized to the proving ground or actual roads. This paper studies a methodology for generating a sweep endurance test procedure for evaluation of resonating components. Responses like stress and accelerations were measured in test components in proving ground. Contribution of each frequency band towards overall damage is determined.
Technical Paper

Design Optimization of FEAD System to Meet Durability Target in a New Vehicle Development Program

Front end accessory drive (FEAD) system explained in this paper is a sub-system of an engine. In FEAD system, a poly-v belt is used to drive the alternator and water pump by transmitting power from crankshaft pulley. In a new vehicle development program, durability targets of FEAD system are based on required life of poly-v belt, its static tension readjustment interval and replacement frequency. To meet these durability targets following methodology is applied in design stage:- 1 Simulation of FEAD system to calculate the theoretical life of belt 2 Part level testing of belt as per SAE J2432 These methods give sufficient information on belt durability. However in actual usage, certain failures are prone to happen and enormous difference is always observed between theoretical and actual life of belt. This paper describes the traditional stair-case approach followed to optimize the FEAD system based on the outcome of durability tests.
Technical Paper

Investigation on the Effect of Coolant Temperature on the Performance and Emissions of Naturally Aspirated Gasoline Engine

Downsizing of engines is becoming more popular as manufacturers toil for increased fuel economy. Due to the downsizing of engines, Brake Mean Effective Pressure (BMEP) tends to increase, which in turn increases the heat release from engine. This necessitates the need for optimizing cooling system in order to get higher engine output and lower emissions to comply with stringent emission norms. In earlier engines, thermo-siphon principle was used with water as the coolant. This has been replaced in modern engines with pressurized cooling system with coolants like ethylene glycol mix. Along with the conventional objective of increased material durability with the optimized engine cooling system, it has been found that there is an improvement in the engine output due to increased charging efficiency. This paper describes the effect of engine coolant temperature on performance, emission and efficiency of a three-cylinder naturally aspirated spark ignited engine.