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Technical Paper

Weight Optimization of “Cap, Wheel Center” For Passenger Car

In developing countries steel wheel is generally used in the low end passenger cars. Steel wheel has a hole at center, known as wheel bore which give the provision for tightening & un-tightening of axle nut. Due to this hole, the surrounding parts are visible which reduces the aesthetic appearance of the wheel. To cover the center portion of the wheel, “Cap, Wheel Center” also called as “Center Cap” is used, which is an aesthetic oriented part as shown in Figure 1. Center Cap is designed in such a manner that it can be easily removed & re-fitted during the service of vehicle. This paper explains the systematic methodology to optimize the weight of the “Center Cap” without compromising the performance & aesthetic appearance. Various analytical calculations have been done to achieve base line value of the design which was further justified using CAE (computer aided engineering) to optimize the performance & weight.
Technical Paper

A CAE Approach towards Development of an Optimized Design of Bumper

During the conceptualization of vehicle, it is big challenge for automotive manufacturer to design a vehicle which has an excellent aesthetic looks as well as meet the stringent vehicle regulations. In the vehicle styling, bumper plays an important role in deciding of the contemporary looks of the vehicle. To improve customer satisfaction, it is important to design a bumper which provides feeling and sense of durability. In addition, bumper should sustain low-speed impact and protects the peripheral components such as parking lights, headlamps, hood, back door and safety related installed equipments like Rear parking camera, parking sensors, etc. Bumper should be dent resistant and be able to regain its original shape on removal of the applied load. An elegant design of bumper should be light weight with high strength. This paper explains about a new CAE methodology developed to simulate the real life loading condition of bumper and to calculate the deformation in the bumper.
Technical Paper

Enhanced Light Weight Frontal Crash Box Design for Low Speed and Insurance Tests

Single body architecture designed for various global markets and subjected to varied load cases is a challenge for Body in White (BIW) engineers. Optimization of structural design to meet regulatory, insurance and assessment requirements is an iterative and time consuming task. With focus on reduction of vehicle's damageability and ease of repairability Original Equipment Manufactures (OEM), insurance companies and Research Council for Automobile Repairs (RCAR) [1] are striving for better designs. A space constraint crash box structure installed behind the bumper plays a significant role in absorption of energy, before transmitting to longitudinal rails. In this study, crashworthiness of a multipurpose crash box for a hatch segment vehicle is presented with the various design of experiments conducted with a focus on light weighting, cost and ease of manufacturing.
Technical Paper

An Alternate Methodology to Measure the A-Pillar Obstruction in Passenger Cars

With ever increasing demand for vehicle safety and fuel efficiency, Body in White (BIW) designers are striving for vehicle's body mass optimization leading to the development of lean designs. Nevertheless, considerations like ergonomics also play a significant role while deciding the vehicle structure. As an example, A-pillar (front pillar) plays a major role in vehicle's passive safety. Increase in its cross section size, beyond a particular grade and gauge optimization is eminent to meet target requirements of rigidity and crash. However, the increased obstruction because of the wider section would not only lead to poor visibility and a claustrophobic feeling to the driver but also lead to a lesser response time for him or her to prevent a collision. Obstruction from A-pillar can be a subjective feeling of driver but it should also be quantified and measured to optimize the A-pillar structure. Numerous methodologies are being adopted globally to measure the A-pillar obstruction.
Technical Paper

Passenger Car Front Air - Dam Design Based on Aerodynamic and Fuel Economy Simulations

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is used extensively in the optimization of modern passenger car to meet the ever growing need of higher fuel economy, better engine and underbody cooling. One of the way to achieve better fuel economy is to reduce the vehicle overall resistance to flow, know as drag. Vehicle drag is a complex phenomenon governed by vehicle styling, component shape, layout and driving velocity and road conditions. To reduce the drag a lot of aero-parts are used these days such as air-dam, skirts, spoiler, undercover, dams etc. However the design of these aero-parts must be optimized to get the desired result as their addition alone does not guarantee improvement in performance. This paper aims at studying the effect of air-dam height and position on vehicle aerodynamics. Also the effect of air-dam addition was verified using fuel economy simulations.
Technical Paper

Vehicular Cabin Noise Source Identification and Optimization Using Beamforming and Acoustical Holography

The automobile market is witnessing a different trend altogether - the trend of shifting preference from powerful to fuel efficient machines. Certain factors like growing prices of fuel, struggling global economy, environmental sensitiveness and affordability have pushed the focus on smaller, efficient and cleaner automobiles. To meet such requirements, the automobile manufacturers, are going stringent on vehicle weights. Using electric and hybrid power-plants are other options to meet higher fuel efficiency and emission requirements but significant cost of these technologies have kept their growth restricted to only few makers and to only few regions of the globe. Optimizing the vehicle weight is a more attractive option for makers as it promises lesser time to market, is low on investment and allows use of existing platforms.
Technical Paper

A new analytical model for clutch system modeling and design optimization.

In manual transmission vehicles, Clutch has a direct interaction with driver and plays a major role in defining the drivability and NVH of a vehicle. These key performances depend on interaction of various nonlinear springs in clutch cover and disc assemblies. For a car manufacturer, it’s important to optimize vehicle performance based on individual characteristics of clutch springs in a fast and easy way. Torque transmissibility, which primarily determines launch quality, depends on combined response of clutch cushion spring, diaphragm spring and cover pressure plate lift off characteristics. Similarly, clutch pedal load characteristic depends on combined response of cover diaphragm and cushion springs. The individual design and interaction of these springs influence the multiple vehicle performance parameters. Often much iteration is required before achieving optimal design of springs.