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Technical Paper


PARAMOUNT among the problems relating to the efficiency of the internal-combustion engine is that of breathing capacity, or air consumption. Considering volumetric efficiency to be the most valuable parameter in an analytical or experimental approach to this problem, the authors of this paper have devoted several years of study to this factor in relation to 4-stroke engines. The studies have resulted in extensive findings, some of which have already been published. This paper attempts to bring together in readable form the results of the work to date, including both published and unpublished data. The authors discuss in detail the effect of volumetric efficiency on operating variables, piston speed, inlet-valve flow capacity, cylinder design, and size. They introduce a gulp factor, the inlet-valve Mach index, and explain how this factor can be used to guide engineers.
Technical Paper

Scavenging the 2-Stroke Engine

THE indicated output of a 2-stroke engine is primarily dependent upon the success with which the products of combustion are driven from the cylinder and are replaced by fresh air or mixture during the scavenging period. Such replacement must, of course, be accomplished with a minimum of blower power. This paper deals with various aspects of 2-stroke research conducted at M.I.T. during the past 10 years. Among the subjects discussed are the methods used in the prediction and measurement of scavenging efficiency, and the effect of engine design and operating variables on the scavenging blower requirements as reflected by the scavenging ratio.
Technical Paper


THE autoignition characteristics of several fuels under various conditions of mixture strength, compression ratio, and temperature have been studied by means of a rapid-compression machine. The behaviors of a knock inhibitor, tetraethyl lead, and a knock inducer, ethyl nitrite, have also been studied. Simultaneous records of pressure, volume, and the inflammation have been obtained. These records show the diverse aspects of the autoignition phenomenon and indicate, among other things, according to the authors, that a comparison of the detonating tendencies of fuels must include not only a consideration of the length of the delay period but also an evaluation of the rate of pressure rise during autoignition. Physical interpretations of the data are presented but chemical interpretations have been avoided. The work was exploratory in nature. The authors hope that the results will stimulate activity in this important branch of combustion research.
Technical Paper

Thermodynamic Properties of the Working Fluid in Internal-Combustion Engines

THE thermodynamic analysis of an internal-combustion engine, even in the idealized case, is in general more complex than a similar analysis of an engine cycle in which the fluid undergoes no chemical change. It is the purpose of this paper to show that, despite the inherent complexity of the problem, an exact solution by graphical methods is possible, and the method is very similar in nature to those used in connection with the Mollier diagram for steam. Two types of charts are presented, one descriptive of the thermodynamic properties of the airfuel mixture (and residual products of combustion) before combustion, the other descriptive of the properties of the equilibrium mixture after combustion. Full allowance is made for the variation of specific heats with temperature and for the complex dissociation at the high temperatures attained after combustion. All calculations are based on the most recent basic thermodynamic data available in the literature.
Technical Paper

Vibration Measurement in Flight

EQUIPMENT for measuring vibration in airplane structures and powerplants during actual flight is described in this paper. This development is the result of a cooperative research program carried out by the Bureau of Aeronautics of the U. S. Navy and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology with contributions of improvements in design and new features by the Sperry Gyroscope Co., Inc. In its essentials, the M.I.T.-Sperry Apparatus consists of a number of electrical pickup units which operate a central amplifying and recording unit. The recorder is a double-element photographic oscillograph. Each pickup is adapted especially to the type of vibration that it is intended to measure and is made so small that it does not appreciably affect the vibration characteristics of the member to which it is attached rigidly. By using a number of systematically placed pickups, all the necessary vibration information on an airplane can be recorded during a few short flights.
Technical Paper

Creativity In Engineering

ANALYZED in this paper are the creative problem, the creative process, and the creative person. Among factors essential to the creative individual, the author says, are: 1. More ideas per unit of time. 2. Ability to rule out judgment during the idea-forming stage. 3. Lack of barriers between the subconscious and conscious mind. 4. Fluency of ideation. 5. Flexibility. 6. Originality. 7. Sensitivity to existence of problems. Most encouraging, he feels, is the fact that exercise and practice can develop most of these factors in most people. He urges greater interest and endeavor in this direction throughout American industry.
Technical Paper

Small Scale Research in Automobile Aerodynamics

This paper describes a three component strain gage balance designed to measure aerodynamic forces exerted on small automobile models when subjected to turbulence in an experimental wind tunnel. The instrument is described and the details of obtaining values with it are fully explained. Although tests were conducted on these models at quarter-scale Reynolds number, results agree closely with similar tests on larger models. The balance makes practical some unusual preliminary investigations before developing full-scale prototypes.
Technical Paper


THIS paper reports the latest investigation of the relative merits of loop scavenging versus through scavenging. The authors hope that the conditions of the work permitted an objective evaluation of the two types of engines. The results of the study may be summarized as follows: 1. With symmetrical timing, neither cylinder shows significant advantage in trapping efficiency. 2. With symmetrical timing, the best ratio of exhaust-port to inlet-port effective area seems to be about 0.6. 3. Unsymmetrical timing is an effective method of improving trapping efficiency. 4. The value of net indicated fuel economy shows no significant difference between the two cylinders. The authors point out that because the areas were equal it is unlikely that the optimum port design of each type was used in comparing the cylinders. If optimum porting had been used, the two types might have shown more difference.
Technical Paper

Measurement of -- Gas Temperature in an Engine by the VELOCITY OF SOUND METHOD

THIS paper outlines a new method of measuring end-gas temperatures within the cylinder of an operating engine. The new instrument measures the acoustical properties by the pulse method, transmitting an acoustical impulse through a gas path of known length and measuring the time of propagation through the gas. The method yields a value for the average velocity of sound in the path. The authors describe the instrument and engine modifications necessary. The results of tests are also discussed, with a detailed description of one series. The appendixes outline the mathematical steps of finding the sound velocity in gas mixtures and the fuel-air cycle for the detailed series of tests.
Technical Paper

Substitution of Steam for Nitrogen as a Working Fluid in Atmosphere Free Spark Ignition Engines - Theory and Test Results for Steam, Oxygen, and Fuel

This paper summarizes the results of both the preliminary studies and the initial cycle tests of a unique type of IC engine capable of operating in the absence of an atmosphere. This engine has been designed specifically for use in the general space program, and it is intended to satisfy requirements of high power to weight ratio, reliability, compactness, and short development time. The history of the en-engine's development is discussed together with problems encountered in the study. However, primary emphasis is on the recently conducted cycle tests.
Technical Paper

Guideways to Airways - Intermodal Access Problem

The airport is but a part of the transportation system of an urban area. While access to the airport is a significant problem faced by millions of travelers and affects a wider spectrum of our population each year, it does not yet command a sufficiently large urban transportation market, as compared to the urban commuter market, to justify the construction of airport-access-only, ground-transportation systems. Dual-mode vehicle systems that combine the advantages of both automobile and transit systems are investigated as potential solutions to the airport access problem. These are particularly interesting because they also show promise of a major solution to the general urban transportation problem. Special consideration of an airport access system as a demonstration site for new urban transportation projects is presented.
Technical Paper

A Methodology for Evaluating Body Architecture Concepts Using Technical Cost Modeling

The ability to make accurate decisions concerning early body-in-white architectures is critical to an automaker since these decisions often have long term cost and weight impacts. We address this need with a methodology which can be used to assist in body architecture decisions using process-based technical cost modeling (TCM) as a filter to evaluate alternate designs. Despite the data limitations of early design concepts, TCM can be used to identify key trends for cost-effectiveness between design variants. A compact body-in-white architecture will be used as a case study to illustrate this technique. The baseline steel structure will be compared to several alternate aluminum intensive structures in the context of production volume.
Technical Paper

Using Mass Spectrometry to Detect Ethanol and Acetaldehyde Emissions from a Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine Operating on Ethanol/Gasoline Blends

Ethanol and acetaldehyde emissions from a direct ignition spark ignition were measured using mass spectrometry. Previous methods focused on eliminating or minimizing interference from exhaust species with identical atomic mass and fragment ions created in ionization process. This paper describes a new technique which exploits the fragment ions from ethanol and acetaldehyde. A survey of mass spectra of all major species of exhaust gas was conducted. It was found that ethanol contributes most ions in mass number 31 and that no other gas species produces ions at this mass number. Acetaldehyde detection suffers more interference. Nevertheless, it was estimated that detection at mass number 43 is possible with 10% error from 2-methylbutane. This new technique was validated in an engine experiment. By running the engine with pure gasoline and E85, the validity of the technique can be checked.
Journal Article

Particulate Matter Emissions from a Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine under Cold Fast Idle Conditions for Ethanol-Gasoline Blends

The engine out particular matter number (PN) distributions at engine coolant temperature (ECT) of 0° C to 40° C for ethanol/ gasoline blends (E0 to E85) have been measured for a direct-injection spark ignition engine under cold fast idle condition. For E10 to E85, PN increases modestly when the ECT is lowered. The distributions, however, are insensitive to the ethanol content of the fuel. The PN for E0 is substantially higher than the gasohol fuels at ECT below 20° C. The total PN values (obtained from integrating the PN distribution from 15 to 350 run) are approximately the same for all fuels (E0 to E85) when ECT is above 20° C. When ECT is decreased below 20° C, the total PN values for E10 to E85 increase modestly, and they are insensitive to the ethanol content. For E0, however, the total PN increases substantially. This sharp change in PN from E0 to E10 is confirmed by running the tests with E2.5 and E5. The midpoint of the transition occurs at approximately E5.
Journal Article

Design Drivers of Energy-Efficient Transport Aircraft

The fuel energy consumption of subsonic air transportation is examined. The focus is on identification and quantification of fundamental engineering design tradeoffs which drive the design of subsonic tube and wing transport aircraft. The sensitivities of energy efficiency to recent and forecast technology developments are also examined.
Technical Paper

The Sensitivity of DPF Performance to the Spatial Distribution of Ash Inside DPF Inlet Channels

Ash inside a honeycomb-configured diesel particulate filter (DPF) inlet channel accumulates both as a cake layer along the channel walls and as a “plug” towards the back of the channel. Experimental studies of DPF ash distribution have shown both an axial variation of deposits along channels and accumulation towards the end plugs. This study evaluates the sensitivity of DPF pressure drop on ash axial distribution and the potential to reduce flow restrictions by controlling and optimizing the spatial distribution of ash inside DPF channels. A computational model has been used in conjunction with experimental data to illustrate the sensitivity of ash spatial distribution on DPF performance. The classical constant-thickness DPF one-dimensional models have substantially been updated to include layer thickness axial variations. Material properties, such as ash characteristics, are provided by recent experiments at the authors' laboratory.
Journal Article

In-Situ Optical Analysis of Ash Formation and Transport in Diesel Particulate Filters During Active and Passive DPF Regeneration Processes

The formation and transport processes governing the build-up of incombustible ash deposits in diesel particulate filters (DPF) are influenced to a large extent by the filter's operating history. More specifically, the regeneration process, whether active, passive, or some variation of the two, has long been assumed to exert significant influence on the resulting ash characteristics. Until recently, only limited circumstantial evidence was available to describe differences in ash properties and distribution impacting DPF performance for filters subjected to different regeneration strategies. This work presents, for the first time, results from a comprehensive series of evaluations with optically-accessible DPF core samples showing the processes controlling the formation, transport, and interaction of the soot and ash deposits over a range of DPF regeneration conditions.
Journal Article

Direct Measurements of Soot/Ash Affinity in the Diesel Particulate Filter by Atomic Force Microscopy and Implications for Ash Accumulation and DPF Degradation

Inorganic engine lubricant additives, which have various specific, necessary functions such as anti-wear, leave the combustion chamber bound to soot particles (approximately ≤1% by mass) as ash [13], and accumulate in aftertreatment components. The diesel particulate filter (DPF) is especially susceptible to ash-related issues due to its wall-flow architecture which physically traps most of the soot and ash emissions. Accumulated lubricant-derived ash results in numerous problems including increased filter pressure drop and decreased catalytic functionality. While much progress has been made to understand the macroscopic details and effects of ash accumulation on DPF performance, this study explores the nano- and micron-scale forces which impact particle adhesion and mobility within the particulate filter.