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Technical Paper

Alcohol Fueled Heavy Duty Vehicles Using Clean, High Efficiency Engines

2010-10-25
2010-01-2199
Non-petroleum based liquid fuels are essential for reducing oil dependence and greenhouse gas generation. Increased substitution of alcohol fuel for petroleum based fuels could be achieved by 1) use in high efficiency spark ignition engines that are employed for heavy duty as well as light duty operation and 2) use of methanol as well as ethanol. Methanol is the liquid fuel that is most efficiently produced from thermo-chemical gasification of coal, natural gas, waste or biomass. Ethanol can also be produced by this process but at lower efficiency and higher cost. Coal derived methanol is in limited initial use as a transportation fuel in China. Methanol could potentially be produced from natural gas at an economically competitive fuel costs, and with essentially the same greenhouse gas impact as gasoline. Waste derived methanol could also be an affordable low carbon fuel.
Technical Paper

Flex Fuel Gasoline-Alcohol Engines For Near Zero Emissions Plug-In Hybrid Long Haul Trucks

2019-04-02
2019-01-0565
Internal combustion engines for plug-in hybrid heavy duty trucks, especially long haul trucks, can play an important role in facilitating use of battery power. Power from a low carbon electricity source could thereby be employed without an unattractive vehicle cost increase or range limitation. The ideal engine should be powered by a widely available affordable liquid fuel, should minimize air pollutant emissions, and should provide lower greenhouse gas emissions. Diesel engines fall short in meeting these objectives, especially because of high NOx emissions. In this paper we describe features of flex fuel alcohol enhanced gasoline engines in series hybrid powertrains where the engines have the same or greater efficiency of diesel engines while also having 90% lower NOx emissions. Ethanol or methanol is employed to increase knock resistance and provide improved combustion.
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