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Technical Paper

Engine Experiments on the Effects of Design and Operational Parameters on Piston Secondary Motion and Piston Slap

1994-03-01
940695
Experiments were done to quantify the dynamic motion of the piston and oil-film during piston impact on the cylinder bore, commonly known as “piston slap.” Parameters measured include engine block vibration, piston-skirt to liner separation, oil-film thickness between the piston and liner, and other engine operating conditions. Experimental parametric studies were performed covering the following: engine operating parameters - spark timing, liner temperature, oil-film thickness, oil type, and engine speed; and engine design parameters - piston-skirt surface waviness, piston-skirt/cylinder-liner clearance, and wrist-pin offset. Two dynamic modes of piston-motion-induced vibration were observed, and effects of changes in engine operating and design parameters were investigated for both types of slap. It was evident that engine design parameters have stronger effects on piston slap intensity, with piston-skirt/liner clearance and wrist-pin offset being the dominant parameters.
Technical Paper

The Possible Role of Surface Tension in the Reduction of Top Ring Drag

1993-10-01
932781
In a small (4.5 KW) diesel engine, Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) has been used to produce detailed oil film thickness measurements around the top piston ring and liner near midstroke. The flow is “Newtonian” under the ring in the sense that using a high shear rate viscosity at the liner temperature is appropriate. The geometry corresponds everywhere to that required for a valid Reynolds approximation. Classical boundary conditions are not applicable for the high strain rates (106-107 s-1) under the piston rings of typical modem engines. A new boundary condition is developed to explain the data. The exit surface shear stress is shown to scale with a Marangoni-like (surface tension gradient) effect. By increasing surface tension, it is possible to make substantial reductions in friction for a fixed high shear viscosity.
Technical Paper

The Theory of Cost Risk in Design

1999-03-01
1999-01-0495
In a recent paper (Hoult & Meador, [1]) a novel method of estimating the costs of parts, and assemblies of parts, was presented. This paper proposed that the metric for increments of cost was the function log (dimension/tolerance). Although such log functions have a history,given in [1], starting with Boltzman and Shannon, it is curious that it arises in cost models. In particular, the thermodynamic basis of information theory, given by Shannon [2], seems quite implausible in the present context. In [1], we called the cost theory “Complexity Theory”, mainly to distinguish it from information theory. A major purpose of the present paper is to present a rigorous argument of how the log function arises in the present context. It happens that the agrument hinges on two key issues: properties of the machine making or assembling the part, and a certain limit process. Neither involves thermodynamic reasoning.
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