Analysis of NOx Emissions during Crank-Start and Cold Fast-Idle in a GDI Engine
The NOx emissions during the crank-start and cold fast-idle phases of a GDI engine are analyzed in detail. The NOx emissions of the first 3 firing cycles are studied under a wide set of parameters including the mass of fuel injected, start of injection, and ignition timing. The results show a strong dependence of the NOx emissions with injection timing; they are significantly reduced as the mixture is stratified. The impact of different valve timings on crank-start NOx emissions was analyzed. Late intake and early exhaust timings show similar potential for NOx reduction; 26-30% lower than the baseline. The combined strategy, resulting in a large symmetric negative valve overlap, shows the greatest reduction; 59% lower than the baseline. The cold fast-idle NOx emissions were studied under different equivalence ratios, injection strategies, combustion phasing, and valve timings. Slightly lean air-fuel mixtures result in a significant reduction of NOx.