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Technical Paper

Liquid Fuel Transport Mechanisms into the Cylinder of a Firing Port-Injected SI Engine During Start Up

The occurrence of liquid fuel in the cylinder of automotive internal combustion engines is believed to be an important source of exhaust hydrocarbon (HC) emissions, especially during the warm-up process following an engine start up. In this study a Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) has been used in a transparent flow visualization combustion engine in order to investigate the phenomena which govern the transport of liquid fuel into the cylinder during a simulated engine start up process. Using indolene fuel, the engine was started up from room temperature and run for 90 sec on each start up simulation. The size and velocity of the liquid fuel droplets entering the cylinder were measured as a function of time and crank angle position during these start up processes. The square-piston transparent engine used gave full optical access to the cylinder head region, so that these droplet characteristics could be measured in the immediate vicinity of the intake valve.
Technical Paper

Effect of Engine and Fuel Variables on Liquid Fuel Transport into the Cylinder in Port-Injected SI Engines

Liquid fuel inflow into the cylinder is considered to be an important source of exhaust hydrocarbon (HC) emissions from automotive spark ignition engines. These liquid-fuel-caused emissions are increased significantly during the start up and subsequent warm-up period. This study analyzes the influence of several engine and injector design variables, and fuel parameters, on the in-cylinder liquid fuel behavior. The effect of the following parameters on the characteristics of the fuel droplets entering the cylinder was studied: Fuel volatility, injection timing, intake valve timing, injector type, spray geometry, and spray targeting in the intake port. A Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) was used in a single-cylinder flow visualization combustion engine to assess this in-cylinder liquid fuel behavior. Measurements of fuel droplet characteristics (size and velocity) were taken in selected locations in the vicinity of the intake valve during starting and warm up.