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Technical Paper

A Numerical Model of Piston Secondary Motion and Piston Slap in Partially Flooded Elastohydrodynamic Skirt Lubrication

1994-03-01
940696
This paper presents a numerical model of the rotational and lateral dynamics of the piston (secondary motion) and piston slap in mixed lubrication. Piston dynamic behavior, frictional and impact forces are predicted as functions of crank angle. The model considers piston skirt surface waviness, roughness, skirt profile, thermal and mechanical deformations. The model considers partially-flooded skirt and calculates the pressure distributions and friction in the piston skirt region for both hydrodynamic and boundary lubrication. Model predictions are compared with measurements of piston position using gap sensors in a single-cylinder engine and the comparison between theory and measurement shows remarkable agreement.
Technical Paper

Contribution of Oil Layer Mechanism to the Hydrocarbon Emissions from Spark-Ignition Engines

1997-10-01
972892
A research program designed to measure the contribution from fuel absorption in the thin layer of oil, lubricating the cylinder liner, to the total and speciated HC emissions from a spark ignition engine has been performed. The logic of the experiment design was to test the oil layer mechanism via variations in the oil layer thickness (through the lubricant formulations), solubility of the fuel components in the lubricants, and variations in the crankcase gas phase HC concentration (through crankcase purging). A set of preliminary experiments were carried out to determine the solubility and diffusivity of the fuel components in the individual lubricants. Engine tests showed similar HC emissions among the tested lubricants. No consistent increase was observed with oil viscosity (oil film thickness), contrary to what would be expected if fuel-oil absorption was contributing significantly to engine-out HC. Similarly, no effect of crankcase purging could be observed.
Technical Paper

Effects of Piston-Ring Dynamics on Ring/Groove Wear and Oil Consumption in a Diesel Engine

1997-02-24
970835
The wear patterns of the rings and grooves of a diesel engine were analyzed by using a ring dynamics/gas flow model and a ring-pack oil film thickness model. The analysis focused primarily on the contact pressure distribution on the ring sides and grooves as well as on the contact location on the ring running surfaces. Analysis was performed for both new and worn ring/groove profiles. Calculated results are consistent with the measured wear patterns. The effects of groove tilt and static twist on the development of wear patterns on the ring sides, grooves, and ring running surfaces were studied. Ring flutter was observed from the calculation and its effect on oil transport was discussed. Up-scraping of the top ring was studied by considering ring dynamic twist and piston tilt. This work shows that the models used have potential for providing practical guidance to optimizing the ring pack and ring grooves to control wear and reduce oil consumption.
Technical Paper

A Piston Ring-Pack Film Thickness and Friction Model for Multigrade Oils and Rough Surfaces

1996-10-01
962032
A complete one-dimensional mixed lubrication model has been developed to predict oil film thickness and friction of the piston ring-pack. An average flow model and a roughness contact model are used to consider the effects of surface roughness on both hydrodynamic and boundary lubrication. Effects of shear-thinning and liner temperature on lubricant viscosity are included. An inlet condition is applied by considering the unsteady wetting location at the leading edge of the ring. A ‘film non-separation’ exit condition is proposed to replace Reynolds exit condition when the oil squeezing becomes dominant. Three lubrication modes are considered in the model, namely, pure hydrodynamic, mixed, and pure boundary lubrication. All of these considerations are crucial for studying the oil transport, asperity contact, and friction especially in the top dead center (TDC) region where the oil control ring cannot reach.
Technical Paper

A Numerical and Experimental Study of Twin-land Oil Control Ring Friction in Internal Combustion Engines Part 2

2012-04-16
2012-01-1321
A twin-land oil control ring (TLOCR) model is used to evaluate TLOCR friction and the results are compared to the experiment measurement in a single cylinder floating liner engine under motoring condition. The model is based on a correlation between the hydrodynamic pressure and film thickness, which is generated using a deterministic model. The well-known three-regime lubrication is predicted with the model for ring with different ring tensions under various engine running conditions. A good match is found for the model and experiment results.
Technical Paper

The Study of Friction between Piston Ring and Different Cylinder Liners using Floating Liner Engine - Part 1

2012-04-16
2012-01-1334
The objective of this work was to develop an experimental system to support development and validation of a model for the lubrication of two-piece Twin-Land-Oil-Control-Rings (hereafter mentioned as TLOCR). To do so, a floating liner engine was modified by opening the head and crankcase. Additionally, only TLOCR was installed together with a piston that has 100 micron cold clearance to minimize the contribution of the skirt to total friction. Friction traces, FMEP trend, and repeatability have been examined to guarantee the reliability of the experiment results. Then, engine speed, liner temperature, ring tension, and land widths were changed in a wide range to ensure all three lubrication regimes were covered in the experiments.
Technical Paper

Modeling of the Rotary Engine Apex Seal Lubrication

2015-09-01
2015-01-2035
The Wankel rotary engine is more compact than conventional piston engines, but its oil and fuel consumption must be reduced to satisfy emission standards and customer expectations. A key step toward this goal is to develop a better understanding of the apex seal lubrication to reduce oil injection while reducing friction and maintaining adequate wear. This paper presents an apex seal dynamics model capable of estimating relative wear and predicting friction, by modeling the gas and oil flows at the seal interfaces with the rotor housing and groove flanks. Model predictions show that a thin oil film can reduce wear and friction, but to a limited extent as the apex seal running face profile is sharp due to the engine kinematics.
Technical Paper

Development of a High Speed Laser Induced Fluorescence (HSLIF) System in a Single Cylinder Engine for Oil Transport Studies

2016-04-05
2016-01-0642
Understanding oil transport mechanisms is critical to developing better tools for oil consumption and piston skirt lubrication [1]. Our existing Two-Dimensional Laser Induced Fluorescence (2DLIF) system with an acquisition rate of 1 frame every one or two cycles was proven to be effective to display oil accumulation patterns and their evolution over many cycles in the piston ring pack system [2,3,4]. Yet, the existing system is unable to resolve instantaneous oil flow patterns in the piston-liner interface. In this work, a high-speed LIF system was developed. After a number of iterations the finalized high speed LIF system includes a 23 W, 100 kHz, 532 nm laser and a high speed camera capable of 100,000 FPS at 384 × 264 pixel resolution. After each component was selected, optimization of the quality of images taken from the system began.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study of Piston Skirt Roughness and Profiles on Piston Friction Using the Floating Liner Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-1043
The piston skirt is an important contributor of friction in the piston assembly. This paper discusses friction contributions from various aspects of the piston skirt. A brief study of piston skirt patterns is presented, with little gains being made by patterning the piston skirt coating. Next the roughness of the piston skirt coating is analyzed, and results show that reducing piston skirt roughness can have positive effects on friction reduction. Finally, an introductory study into the profile of the piston skirt is presented, with the outcome being that friction reduction is possible by optimizing the skirt profile.
Technical Paper

Introducing a New Piston Skirt Profile to Reduce Engine Friction

2016-04-05
2016-01-1046
The piston’s skirt shape is a key design parameter since it critically influences lateral displacement, tilting movement, oil transport and consequently engine performances. This study proposes an alternative skirt profile that aims to reduce frictional losses between the piston and cylinder liner. Qualitatively, the proposed profile, aims to reduce solid-to-solid contact friction by increasing the total hydrodynamic forces generated on the skirt to balance side forces, and to prevent both sides of the skirt to interact with the liner simultaneously. The new skirt’s profile has been first studied and optimized using a piston secondary motion model and then prototyped and tested on a floating liner test bench, showing a 12% average reduction in total piston FMEP.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Evolution of Fuel and Lubricant Interactions on the Liner in Internal Combustion Engines

2018-04-03
2018-01-0279
In internal combustion engines, a portion of liquid fuel spray may directly land on the liner and mix with oil (lubricant), forming a fuel-oil film (~10μm) that is much thicker than the original oil film (~0.1μm). When the piston retracts in the compression stroke, the fuel-oil mixture may have not been fully vaporized and can be scraped by the top ring into the 1st land crevice and eventually enter the combustion chamber in the format of droplets. Studies have shown that this mechanism is possibly a leading cause for low-speed pre-ignition (LSPI) as the droplets contain oil that has a much lower self-ignition temperature than pure fuel. In this interest, this work aims to study the oil-fuel interactions on the liner during an engine cycle, addressing molecular diffusion (in the liquid film) and vaporization (at the liquid-gas interface) to quantify the amount of fuel and oil that are subject to scraping by the top ring, thereby exploring their implications on LSPI and friction.
Technical Paper

A One-Line Correlation for Predicting Oil Vaporization from Liner for IC Engines

2018-04-03
2018-01-0162
The increasingly stringent regulations for fuel economy and emissions require better optimization and control of oil consumption. One of the primary mechanisms of oil consumption is vaporization from the liner; we consider this as the “minimum oil consumption (MOC).” This paper presents a physical-mathematical cycle model for predicting the MOC. The numerical simulations suggest that the MOC is markedly sensitive to oil volatility, liner temperature, engine load and speed but less sensitive to oil film thickness. A one-line correlation is proposed for quick MOC estimations. It is shown to have <15% error compared to the cycle MOC computation. In the “dry region” (between top ring and OCR at the TDC), oil is depleted due to high heat and continual exposure to the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Optimizing Honing Texture for Reduced Friction in Internal Combustion Engines

2006-04-03
2006-01-0647
Frictional losses in the piston ring-pack of an engine account for approximately half of the total frictional losses within the power cylinder of an engine. Three-dimensional honing groove texture was modeled, and its effect on piston ring-pack friction and engine brake thermal efficiency was investigated. Adverse effects on engine oil consumption and durability were also considered. Although many non-conventional cylinder liner finishes are now being developed to reduce friction and oil consumption, the effects of surface finish on ring-pack performance is not well understood. A rough surface flow simulation program was developed to calculate flow and stress factors that adjust the solution of the Reynolds equation for the effects of surface roughness as has been done in the literature. Rough surface contact between the ring and liner was modeled using a previously published methodology for asperity contact pressure estimation between rough surfaces.
Technical Paper

Development and Applications of an Analytical Tool for Piston Ring Design

2003-10-27
2003-01-3112
A comprehensive and robust analytical tool was developed to study three-dimensional (3D) ring-bore and ring-groove interactions for piston rings with either symmetric or asymmetric cross-section. The structural response of the ring is modeled with 3D finite element beam method, and the interfaces between the ring and the bore as well as between the ring and the groove are modeled with a simple asperity contact model. Given the ring free shape and the geometry of the cross-section, this analytical tool can be used to evaluate the ring-bore and ring-groove conformability as well as ring twist angle distribution under different constraints. Conversely, this tool can be used to calculate the free shape to provide the desired ring-bore contact pressure distribution for specific applications.
Technical Paper

Curved Beam Based Model for Piston-Ring Designs in Internal Combustion Engines: Closed Shape Within a Flexible Band, Free-Shape and Force in Circular Bore Study

2018-04-03
2018-01-1279
A new multi-scale curved beam based model was developed for piston-ring designs. This paper describes the free-shape, force in circular bore and closed shape within a flexible band (ovality) related parts. Knowing any one of these distributions, this model determines the other two. This tool is useful in the sense that the characterization of the ring is carried out by measuring its closed shape within a flexible band which is more accurate than measuring its free shape or force distribution in circular bore. Thus, having a model that takes the closed shape within a flexible band as an input is more convenient and useful based on the experiments carried out to characterize the ring.
Technical Paper

Curved Beam Based Model for Piston-Ring Designs in Internal Combustion Engines: Working Engine Conditions Study

2018-04-03
2018-01-1277
A new multi-scale curved beam based model was developed for piston-ring designs. This tool is able to characterize the behavior of a ring with any cross section design. This paper describes the conformability and ring static twist calculation. The conformability part model the static behavior of the ring in working engine conditions. The model employs the computation scheme that separates the meshing of the structure and local force generation. Additional to the conventional static ring-bore conformability analysis, the conformability model is designed to examine ring-bore and ring-groove interactions in a running engine under varying driving forces and localized lubrication conditions. We made Improvements on the way to handle the effects of the radial temperature gradient compared to the existing models. Examples are given on the effects of ring rotation on the interaction of the ring and a distorted bore as well as the change of local lubrication conditions.
Journal Article

Oil Transport Cycle Model for Rotary Engine Oil Seals

2014-04-01
2014-01-1664
The rotary engine provides high power density compared to piston engine, but one of its downside is higher oil consumption. A model of the oil seals is developed to calculate internal oil consumption (oil leakage from the crankcase through the oil seals) as a function of engine geometry and operating conditions. The deformation of the oil seals trying to conform to housing distortion is calculated to balance spring force, O-ring and groove friction, and asperity contact and hydrodynamic pressure at the interface. A control volume approach is used to track the oil over a cycle on the seals, the rotor and the housing as the seals are moving following the eccentric rotation of the rotor. The dominant cause of internal oil consumption is the non-conformability of the oil seals to the housing distortion generating net outward scraping, particularly next to the intake and exhaust port where the housing distortion valleys are deep and narrow.
Journal Article

Visualization of the Rotary Engine Oil Transport Mechanisms

2014-04-01
2014-01-1665
The rotary engine provides high power density compared to piston engine, but one of its downside is higher oil consumption. In order to better understand oil transport, a laser induced fluorescence technique is used to visualize oil motion on the side of the rotor during engine operation. Oil transport from both metered oil and internal oil is observed. Starting from inside, oil accumulates in the rotor land during inward motion of the rotor created by its eccentric motion. Oil seals are then scraping the oil outward due to seal-housing clearance asymmetry between inward and outward motion. Cut-off seal does not provide an additional barrier to internal oil consumption. Internal oil then mixes with metered oil brought to the side of the rotor by gas leakage. Oil is finally pushed outward by centrifugal force, passes the side seals, and is thrown off in the combustion chamber.
Journal Article

A Study of the Friction of Oil Control Rings Using the Floating Liner Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-1048
The oil control ring (OCR) controls the supply of lubricating oil to the top two rings of the piston ring pack and has a significant contribution to friction of the system. This study investigates the two most prevalent types of OCR in the automotive market: the twin land oil control ring (TLOCR) and three piece oil control ring (TPOCR). First, the basis for TLOCR friction on varying liner roughness is established. Then the effect of changing the land width and spring tension on different liner surfaces for the TLOCR is investigated, and distinct trends are identified. A comparison is then done between the TLOCR and TPOCR on different liner surfaces. Results showed the TPOCR displayed different patterns of friction compared the TLOCR in certain cases.
Journal Article

A Dual Grid Curved Beam Finite Element Model of Piston Rings for Improved Contact Capabilities

2014-04-01
2014-01-1085
Piston rings are large contributors to friction losses in internal combustion engines. To achieve higher engine efficiency, low friction ring packs that can maintain good sealing performance must be designed. To support this effort, simulation tools have been developed to model the performance of piston rings during engine operation. However, the challenge of predicting oil consumption, blow by, and ring pack friction with sufficient accuracy remains. This is mostly due to the complexity of this system. Ring dynamics, deformation, interaction with liner and piston, gas and lubricant flow must all be studied together to make relevant predictions. In this paper, a new curved beam finite element model of piston rings is proposed. Ring structural deformation and contact with the liner are treated on two separate grids. A comparison with ring models in the literature and analytical solutions shows that it can provide accurate results efficiently.
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