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Technical Paper

Time-Resolved, Speciated Emissions from an SI Engine During Starting and Warm-Up

1996-10-01
961955
A sampling system was developed to measure the evolution of the speciated hydrocarbon emissions from a single-cylinder SI engine in a simulated starting and warm-up procedure. A sequence of exhaust samples was drawn and stored for gas chromatograph analysis. The individual sampling aperture was set at 0.13 s which corresponds to ∼ 1 cycle at 900 rpm. The positions of the apertures (in time) were controlled by a computer and were spaced appropriately to capture the warm-up process. The time resolution was of the order of 1 to 2 cycles (at 900 rpm). Results for four different fuels are reported: n-pentane/iso-octane mixture at volume ratio of 20/80 to study the effect of a light fuel component in the mixture; n-decane/iso-octane mixture at 10/90 to study the effect of a heavy fuel component in the mixture; m-xylene and iso-octane at 25/75 to study the effect of an aromatics in the mixture; and a calibration gasoline.
Technical Paper

Fuel Effects and Enrichment Effects on Engine Starting and Warm-Up Behavior

1995-02-01
950065
The effects of fuel volatility and degree of enrichment on the starting and warm-up behavior of a modern four-valve spark ignition engine with port-fuel-injection were studied. Quantities of interest are the number of cycles to reach first significant firing, the time scale (τr) for the IMEP development, the decay rate of the IMEP fluctuation, and the RMS fluctuation after 3τr. A selected matrix of fuels that included various volume ratios of indolene/MTBE and iso-octane/n-pentane was used. The amount of fuel injected per cycle was varied from stoichiometric to a fuel equivalence ratio of 1.5. The engine behavior (as quantified by the quantities described in the above) is found to correlate well to a single parameter - the fuel equivalence ratio based on the fuel vapor mass calculated from an isothermal equilibrium flash vaporization of the fuel in the vapor boundary layer of the intake flow at intake manifold temperature.
Technical Paper

Effect of Engine Operating Parameters on Hydrocarbon Oxidation in the Exhaust Port and Runner of a Spark-Ignited Engine

1995-02-01
950159
The effect of engine operating parameters (speed, spark timing, and fuel-air equivalence ratio [Φ]) on hydrocarbon (HC) oxidation within the cylinder and exhaust system is examined using propane or isooctane fuel. Quench gas (CO2) is introduced at two locations in the exhaust system (exhaust valve or port exit) to stop the oxidation process. Increasing the speed from 1500 to 2500 RPM at MBT spark timing decreases the total, cylinder-exit HC emissions by ∼50% while oxidation in the exhaust system remains at 40% for both fuels. For propane fuel at 1500 rpm, increasing Φ from 0.9 (fuel lean) to 1.1 (fuel rich) reduces oxidation in the exhaust system from 42% to 26%; at 2500 RPM, exhaust system oxidation decreases from 40% to approximately 0% for Φ = 0.9 and 1.1, respectively. Retarded spark increases oxidation in the cylinder and exhaust system for both fuels. Decreases in total HC emissions are accompanied by increased olefinic content and atmospheric reactivity.
Technical Paper

Contribution of Oil Layer Mechanism to the Hydrocarbon Emissions from Spark-Ignition Engines

1997-10-01
972892
A research program designed to measure the contribution from fuel absorption in the thin layer of oil, lubricating the cylinder liner, to the total and speciated HC emissions from a spark ignition engine has been performed. The logic of the experiment design was to test the oil layer mechanism via variations in the oil layer thickness (through the lubricant formulations), solubility of the fuel components in the lubricants, and variations in the crankcase gas phase HC concentration (through crankcase purging). A set of preliminary experiments were carried out to determine the solubility and diffusivity of the fuel components in the individual lubricants. Engine tests showed similar HC emissions among the tested lubricants. No consistent increase was observed with oil viscosity (oil film thickness), contrary to what would be expected if fuel-oil absorption was contributing significantly to engine-out HC. Similarly, no effect of crankcase purging could be observed.
Technical Paper

Flame Shape Determination Using an Optical-Fiber Spark Plug and a Head-Gasket Ionization Probe

1994-10-01
941987
A method for determining the flame contour based on the flame arrival time at the fiber optic (FO) spark plug and at the head gasket ionization probe (IP) locations has been developed. The experimental data were generated in a single-cylinder Ricardo Hydra spark-ignition engine. The head gasket IP, constructed from a double-sided copper-clad circuit board, detects the flame arrival time at eight equally spaced locations at the top of the cylinder liner. Three other IP's were also installed in the cylinder head to provide additional intermediate data on flame location and arrival time. The FO spark plug consists of a standard spark plug with eight symmetrically spaced optical fibers located in the ground casing of the plug. The cylinder pressure was recorded simultaneously with the eleven IP signals and the eight optical signals using a high-speed PC-based data acquisition system.
Technical Paper

Visualization of Mixture Preparation in a Port-Fuel Injection Engine During Engine Warm-up

1995-10-01
952481
The fuel injection process in the port of a firing 4-valve SI engine at part load and 25°C head temperature was observed by a high speed video camera. Fuel was injected when the valve was closed. The reverse blow-down flow when the intake valve opens has been identified as an important factor in the mixture preparation process because it not only alters the thermal environment of the intake port, but also strip-atomizes the liquid film at the vicinity of the intake valve and carries the droplets away from the engine. In a series of “fuel-on” experiments, the fuel injected in the current cycle was observed to influence the fuel delivery to the engine in the subsequent cycles.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Measurements of Residual Gas Concentration in a Spark Ignition Engine

1990-02-01
900485
The residual gas fraction prior to ignition at the vicinity of the spark plug in a single cylinder, two-valve spark ignition engine was measured with a fast-response flame ionization hydrocarbon detector. The technique in using such an instrument is reported. The measurements were made as a function of the intake manifold pressure, engine speed and intake/exhaust valve-overlap duration. Both the mean level of the residual fraction and the statistics of the cycle-to-cycle variations were obtained.
Technical Paper

A Model for Predicting Residual Gas Fraction in Spark-Ignition Engines

1993-03-01
931025
A model for calculating the residual gas fraction in spark ignition engines has been formulated. The model accounts explicitly for the contribution due to the back flow of exhaust gas to the cylinder during the valve overlap period. The model has been calibrated with in-cylinder hydrocarbon measurements at different values of intake pressure, engine speed, and valve overlap timings.
Technical Paper

Performance Assessment of Extended Stroke Spark Ignition Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0893
The performance of an extended stroke spark ignition engine has been assessed by cycle simulation. The base engine is a modern turbo-charged 4-stroke passenger car spark-ignition engine with 10:1 compression ratio. A complex crank mechanism is used so that the intake stroke remains the same while the expansion-to-intake stroke ratio (SR) is varied by changing the crank geometry. The study is limited to the thermodynamic aspect of the extended stroke; the changes in friction, combustion characteristic, and other factors are not included. When the combustion is not knock limited, an efficiency gain of more than 10 percent is obtained for SR = 1.5. At low load, however, there is an efficiency lost due to over-expansion. At the same NIMEP, the extended stroke renders the engine more resistant to knock. At SR of 1.8, the engine is free from knock up to 14 bar NIMEP at 2000 rpm. Under knocking condition, the required spark retard to prevent knocking is less with the extended stroke.
Technical Paper

An Adaptive Air/Fuel Ratio Controller for SI Engine Throttle Transients

1999-03-01
1999-01-0552
An adaptive air/fuel ratio controller for SI engine throttle transient was developed. The scheme is based on an event- based, single- parameter fuel dynamics model. A least- square- error algorithm with an active forgetting factor was used for parameter identifications. A one- step- look- ahead controller was designed to maintain the desired air/fuel ratio by canceling the fuel dynamics with the controller setting updated adaptively according to the identified parameters. When implemented on a Ford Ztech engine and tested under a set of throttle- transient operations, the adaptive controller learned quickly and performed well.
Technical Paper

A Novel Strategy for Fast Catalyst Light-Off without the Use of an Air Pump

2007-01-23
2007-01-0044
A novel engine management strategy for achieving fast catalyst light-off without the use of an exhaust air pump in a port-fuel-injected, spark ignition engine was developed. A conventional 4-cylinder engine was operated with three cylinders running rich and the fourth one as an air pump to supply air to the exhaust manifold. Under steady-state cold coolant conditions, this strategy achieved near total oxidation of CO and HC with sufficiently retarded spark timing, resulting in a 400% increase in feedgas enthalpy flow and a 90% reduction in feedgas HC emissions compared to conventional operation. The strategy was also evaluated for crank starts. Using the existing engine hardware, implementing the strategy resulted in a reduction in catalyst light-off time from 28.0 seconds under conventional operation to 9.1 seconds.
Technical Paper

Assessing the Windage Tray Blockage Effect on Aeration in the Oil Sump

2007-10-29
2007-01-4109
The windage tray effect on aeration in the engine sump was assessed by replacing much of the windage tray materials with wire meshes of various blockages. The mesh was to prevent direct impact of the oil drops spinning off the crank shaft onto the sump oil, and simultaneously, to provide sufficient drainage so that there was no significant build up of windage tray oil film that would interact with these droplets. Aeration at the oil pump inlet was measured by X-ray absorption in a production V-6 SI engine motoring at 2000 to 6000 rpm. Within experimental uncertainty, these windage tray changes had no effect on aeration. Thus activities in the sump such as the interaction of the oil drops spun from the crank shaft with the sump oil or with the windage tray, and the agitation of the sump oil by the crank case gas, were not major contributors to aeration at the pump inlet.
Technical Paper

Contribution of Liquid Fuel to Hydrocarbon Emissions in Spark Ignition Engines

2001-09-24
2001-01-3587
The purpose of this work was to develop an understanding of how liquid fuel transported into the cylinder of a port-fuel-injected gasoline-fueled SI engine contributes to hydrocarbon (HC) emissions. To simulate the liquid fuel flow from the valve seat region into the cylinder, a specially designed fuel probe was developed and used to inject controlled amounts of liquid fuel onto the port wall close to the valve seat. By operating the engine on pre-vaporized Indolene, and injecting a small amount of liquid fuel close to the valve seat while the intake valve was open, we examined the effects of liquid fuel entering the cylinder at different circumferential locations around the valve seat. Similar experiments were also carried out with closed valve injection of liquid fuel at the valve seat to assess the effects of residual blowback, and of evaporation from the intake valve and port surfaces.
Technical Paper

Effects of Ethanol Evaporative Cooling on Particulate Number Emissions in GDI Engines

2018-04-03
2018-01-0360
The spark ignition engine particulate number (PN) emissions have been correlated to a particulate matter index (PMI) in the literature. The PMI value addresses the fuel effect on PN emission through the individual fuel species reactivity and vapor pressure. The latter quantity is used to account for the propensity of the non-volatile fuel components to survive to the later part of the combustion event as wall liquid films, which serve as sources for particulate emission. The PMI, however, does not encompass the suppression of vaporization by the evaporative cooling of fuel components, such as ethanol, that have high latent heat of vaporization. This paper assesses this evaporative cooling effect on PN emissions by measurements in a GDI engine operating with a base gasoline which does not contain oxygenate, with a blend of the gasoline and ethanol, and with a blend of the gasoline, ethanol, and a hydrocarbon additive so that the blend has the same PMI as the original gasoline.
Technical Paper

An Overview of Hydrocarbon Emissions Mechanisms in Spark-Ignition Engines

1993-10-01
932708
This paper provides an overview of spark-ignition engine unburned hydrocarbon emissions mechanisms, and then uses this framework to relate measured engine-out hydrocarbon emission levels to the processes within the engine from which they result. Typically, spark-ignition engine-out HC levels are 1.5 to 2 percent of the gasoline fuel flow into the engine; about half this amount is unburned fuel and half is partially reacted fuel components. The different mechanisms by which hydrocarbons in the gasoline escape burning during the normal engine combustion process are described and approximately quantified. The in-cylinder oxidation of these HC during the expansion and exhaust processes, the fraction which exit the cylinder, and the fraction oxidized in the exhaust port and manifold are also estimated.
Journal Article

On the Nature of Particulate Emissions from DISI Engines at Cold-Fast-Idle

2014-04-01
2014-01-1368
Particulate emissions from a production gasoline direct injection spark ignition engine were studied under a typical cold-fast-idle condition (1200 rpm, 2 bar NIMEP). The particle number (PN) density in the 22 to 365 nm range was measured as a function of the injection timing with single pulse injection and with split injection. Very low PN emissions were observed when injection took place in the mid intake stroke because of the fast fuel evaporation and mixing processes which were facilitated by the high turbulent kinetic energy created by the intake charge motion. Under these conditions, substantial liquid fuel film formation on the combustion chamber surfaces was avoided. PN emissions increased when injection took place in the compression stroke, and increased substantially when the fuel spray hit the piston.
Journal Article

EGR Effects on Boosted SI Engine Operation and Knock Integral Correlation

2012-04-16
2012-01-0707
The effects of cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on a boosted direct-injection (DI) spark ignition (SI) engine operating at stoichiometric equivalence ratio, gross indicated mean effective pressure of 14-18 bar, and speed of 1500-2500 rpm, are studied under constant fuel condition at each operating point. In the presence of EGR, burn durations are longer and combustion is more retard. At the same combustion phasing, the indicated specific fuel consumption improves because of a decrease in heat loss and an increase in the specific heat ratio. The knock limited spark advance increases substantially with EGR. This increase is due partly to a slower combustion which is equivalent to a spark retard, as manifested by a retarded value of the 50% burn point (CA50), and due partly to a slower ignition chemistry of the diluted charge, as manifested by the knock limited spark advance to beyond the value offered by the retarded CA50.
Journal Article

The Effects of Charge Motion and Laminar Flame Speed on Late Robust Combustion in a Spark-Ignition Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0350
The effects of charge motion and laminar flame speeds on combustion and exhaust temperature have been studied by using an air jet in the intake flow to produce an adjustable swirl or tumble motion, and by replacing the nitrogen in the intake air by argon or CO₂, thereby increasing or decreasing the laminar flame speed. The objective is to examine the "Late Robust Combustion" concept: whether there are opportunities for producing a high exhaust temperature using retarded combustion to facilitate catalyst warm-up, while at the same time, keeping an acceptable cycle-to-cycle torque variation as measured by the coefficient of variation (COV) of the net indicated mean effective pressure (NIMEP). The operating condition of interest is at the fast idle period of a cold start with engine speed at 1400 RPM and NIMEP at 2.6 bar. A fast burn could be produced by appropriate charge motion. The combustion phasing is primarily a function of the spark timing.
Technical Paper

Fuel Effects on Throttle Transients in PFI Spark Ignition Engines

1997-05-01
971613
The fuel effects on throttle transients in PFI spark ignition engines were assessed through experiments with simultaneous step change of the throttle position from part load to WOT and increment of the injected fuel amount. The test matrix consisted of various gasoline/methanol blends from pure gasoline to pure methanol, coolant temperatures at 40C (for cold engine condition) and 80C (for warm engine), and different levels of fuel enrichment at the WOT condition. The x-τ model was used to interpret the engine GIMEP response in the transient. Using the model, a procedure was developed to calculate the parameters of the transient from the data. These parameters were systematically regressed against the fuel distillation points, the increment in injected fuel mass in the transient, and the enthalpy required to evaporate the fuel increment as the explanatory variables.
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