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Technical Paper

Time-Resolved, Speciated Emissions from an SI Engine During Starting and Warm-Up

1996-10-01
961955
A sampling system was developed to measure the evolution of the speciated hydrocarbon emissions from a single-cylinder SI engine in a simulated starting and warm-up procedure. A sequence of exhaust samples was drawn and stored for gas chromatograph analysis. The individual sampling aperture was set at 0.13 s which corresponds to ∼ 1 cycle at 900 rpm. The positions of the apertures (in time) were controlled by a computer and were spaced appropriately to capture the warm-up process. The time resolution was of the order of 1 to 2 cycles (at 900 rpm). Results for four different fuels are reported: n-pentane/iso-octane mixture at volume ratio of 20/80 to study the effect of a light fuel component in the mixture; n-decane/iso-octane mixture at 10/90 to study the effect of a heavy fuel component in the mixture; m-xylene and iso-octane at 25/75 to study the effect of an aromatics in the mixture; and a calibration gasoline.
Technical Paper

Flame Kernel Development in a Methanol Fueled Engine

1993-10-01
932649
The combustion behavior in a modem 4-valve engine using a broad range of methanol/gasoline fuel mixtures was studied. The initial flame development was examined by using a spark plug fiber optics probe. Approximately, the kernel expansion speed, Sg, is relatively unchanged from M0 to M40; jumps by ∼30% from M40 to M60; and then remains roughly constant from M60 to M100. Statistics of the IMEP indicate that at a lean idle condition the combustion rate and robustness correlate with Sg: a higher value of Sg gives better combustion. Thus M60-M100 fuels give better idle combustion behavior than the M0-M40 fuels.
Technical Paper

Performance Assessment of Extended Stroke Spark Ignition Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0893
The performance of an extended stroke spark ignition engine has been assessed by cycle simulation. The base engine is a modern turbo-charged 4-stroke passenger car spark-ignition engine with 10:1 compression ratio. A complex crank mechanism is used so that the intake stroke remains the same while the expansion-to-intake stroke ratio (SR) is varied by changing the crank geometry. The study is limited to the thermodynamic aspect of the extended stroke; the changes in friction, combustion characteristic, and other factors are not included. When the combustion is not knock limited, an efficiency gain of more than 10 percent is obtained for SR = 1.5. At low load, however, there is an efficiency lost due to over-expansion. At the same NIMEP, the extended stroke renders the engine more resistant to knock. At SR of 1.8, the engine is free from knock up to 14 bar NIMEP at 2000 rpm. Under knocking condition, the required spark retard to prevent knocking is less with the extended stroke.
Technical Paper

A New Approach to Ethanol Utilization: High Efficiency and Low NOx in an Engine Operating on Simulated Reformed Ethanol

2008-10-06
2008-01-2415
The use of hydrogen as a fuel supplement for lean-burn engines at higher compression ratios has been studied extensively in recent years, with good promise of performance and efficiency gains. With the advances in reformer technology, the use of a gaseous fuel stock, comprising of substantially higher fractions of hydrogen and other flammable reformate species, could provide additional improvements. This paper presents the performance and emission characteristics of a gas mixture of equal volumes of hydrogen, CO, and methane. It has recently been reported that this gas mixture can be produced by reforming of ethanol at comparatively low temperature, around 300C. Experiments were performed on a 1.8-liter passenger-car Nissan engine modified for single-cylinder operation. Special pistons were made so that compression ratios ranging from CR= 9.5 to 17 could be used. The lean limit was extended beyond twice stoichiometric (up to lambda=2.2).
Technical Paper

The Anatomy of Knock

2016-04-05
2016-01-0704
The combustion process after auto-ignition is investigated. Depending on the non-uniformity of the end gas, auto-ignition could initiate a flame, produce pressure waves that excite the engine structure (acoustic knock), or result in detonation (normal or developing). For the “acoustic knock” mode, a knock intensity (KI) is defined as the pressure oscillation amplitude. The KI values over different cycles under a fixed operating condition are observed to have a log-normal distribution. When the operating condition is changed (over different values of λ, EGR, and spark timing), the mean (μ) of log (KI/GIMEP) decreases linearly with the correlation-based ignition delay calculated using the knock-point end gas condition of the mean cycle. The standard deviation σ of log(KI/GIMEP) is approximately a constant, at 0.63. The values of μ and σ thus allow a statistical description of knock from the deterministic calculation of the ignition delay using the mean cycle properties
Technical Paper

Effects of Variations in Market Gasoline Properties on HCCI Load Limits

2007-07-23
2007-01-1859
The impact of market-fuel variations on the HCCI operating range was measured in a 2.3L four-cylinder engine, modified for single-cylinder operation. HCCI combustion was achieved through the use of residual trapping. Variable cam phasing was used to maximize the load range at each speed. Test fuels were blended to cover the range of variation in select commercial fuel properties. Within experimental measurement error, there was no change in the low-load limit among the test fuels. At the high-load limit, some small fuel effects on the operating range were observed; however, the observed trends were not consistent across all the speeds studied.
Technical Paper

Effects of Ethanol Evaporative Cooling on Particulate Number Emissions in GDI Engines

2018-04-03
2018-01-0360
The spark ignition engine particulate number (PN) emissions have been correlated to a particulate matter index (PMI) in the literature. The PMI value addresses the fuel effect on PN emission through the individual fuel species reactivity and vapor pressure. The latter quantity is used to account for the propensity of the non-volatile fuel components to survive to the later part of the combustion event as wall liquid films, which serve as sources for particulate emission. The PMI, however, does not encompass the suppression of vaporization by the evaporative cooling of fuel components, such as ethanol, that have high latent heat of vaporization. This paper assesses this evaporative cooling effect on PN emissions by measurements in a GDI engine operating with a base gasoline which does not contain oxygenate, with a blend of the gasoline and ethanol, and with a blend of the gasoline, ethanol, and a hydrocarbon additive so that the blend has the same PMI as the original gasoline.
Technical Paper

An Overview of Hydrocarbon Emissions Mechanisms in Spark-Ignition Engines

1993-10-01
932708
This paper provides an overview of spark-ignition engine unburned hydrocarbon emissions mechanisms, and then uses this framework to relate measured engine-out hydrocarbon emission levels to the processes within the engine from which they result. Typically, spark-ignition engine-out HC levels are 1.5 to 2 percent of the gasoline fuel flow into the engine; about half this amount is unburned fuel and half is partially reacted fuel components. The different mechanisms by which hydrocarbons in the gasoline escape burning during the normal engine combustion process are described and approximately quantified. The in-cylinder oxidation of these HC during the expansion and exhaust processes, the fraction which exit the cylinder, and the fraction oxidized in the exhaust port and manifold are also estimated.
Journal Article

EGR Effects on Boosted SI Engine Operation and Knock Integral Correlation

2012-04-16
2012-01-0707
The effects of cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on a boosted direct-injection (DI) spark ignition (SI) engine operating at stoichiometric equivalence ratio, gross indicated mean effective pressure of 14-18 bar, and speed of 1500-2500 rpm, are studied under constant fuel condition at each operating point. In the presence of EGR, burn durations are longer and combustion is more retard. At the same combustion phasing, the indicated specific fuel consumption improves because of a decrease in heat loss and an increase in the specific heat ratio. The knock limited spark advance increases substantially with EGR. This increase is due partly to a slower combustion which is equivalent to a spark retard, as manifested by a retarded value of the 50% burn point (CA50), and due partly to a slower ignition chemistry of the diluted charge, as manifested by the knock limited spark advance to beyond the value offered by the retarded CA50.
Journal Article

Assessment of Gasoline Direct Injection Engine Cold Start Particulate Emission Sources

2017-03-28
2017-01-0795
The gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine particulate emission sources are assessed under cold start conditions: the fast idle and speed/load combinations representative of the 1st acceleration in the US FTP. The focus is on the accumulation mode particle number (PN) emission. The sources are non-fuel, combustion of the premixed charge, and liquid fuel film. The non-fuel emissions are measured by operating the engine with premixed methane/air or hydrogen/air. Then the PN level is substantially lower than what is obtained with normal GDI operation; thus non-fuel contribution to PN is small. When operating with stoichiometric premixed gasoline/air, the PN level is comparable to the non-fuel level; thus premixed-stoichiometric mixture combustion does not significantly generate particulates. For fuel rich premixed gasoline/air, PN increases dramatically when lambda is less than 0.7 to 0.8.
Journal Article

Primary Reference Fuel Behavior in a HCCI Engine near the Low-Load Limit

2008-06-23
2008-01-1667
In a previous study, a wide range of gasolines with RON∼90 were tested in a single cylinder engine operated in HCCI mode using negative valve overlap, and all were found to have very similar behavior near the low-load limit. Here we broaden the range of gasolines to include PRF90 and PRF60. At high engine speed, both PRF60 and PRF90 behave similarly to all the other gasolines tested. However, at 1000 RPM, PRF90 is very different from all the other gasolines: it ignites very late, and the engine cannot be operated at low load. Simulations using a popular fuel chemistry model cannot distinguish PRF60 and PRF90 under these conditions. However, a new fuel chemistry model correctly shows the onset of fuel sensitivity at low engine speed. Sensitivity analyses indicate the low-load limit at low engine speed strongly depend on both the chemistry parameters and on the heat-transfer parameters.
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