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Technical Paper

Spacelab Neurovestibular Hardware

1991-07-01
911566
A set of devices for measurement of human balance orientation and eye movements in weightlessness was developed for neurovestibular experiments on Spacelab. The experiments involve astronaut motion, limb position changes, and moving visual fields, measurements are made of eye movements, muscular activity and orientation perception. This joint US/Canadian research program represent a group of closely related experiments designed to investigate space motion sickness, any associated changes in otolith-mediated responses occurring during weightlessness, and the continuation of changes to postflight conditions. The otoliths are a component of the vestibular apparatus which is located in the middle ear. It is responsible for maintaining the body's balance. Gravitational pull on the otoliths causes them to constantly appraise the nervous system of the position of the head with respect to the direction of gravity.
Technical Paper

Draw Bead Penetration as a Control Element of Material Flow

1993-03-01
930517
Draw beads are widely utilized as a mechanism for providing proper restraining force to a sheet in a forming operation. In this paper, numerical simulations using the nonlinear finite element method are conducted to model the process of drawing a sheet through various draw bead configurations to study the mechanics of draw bead restraint. By examing the sensitivity of the draw bead restraining force due to the change of the draw bead penetration, the work shows that the penetration has the potential to be a very good element for varying and controlling restraining force during the process. A closed-loop feedback control of draw bead penetration using a proportional-integral controller is achieved by the combination of the original finite element simulation and a special element which links penetration to a pre-defined restraining force trajectory.
Technical Paper

Optimal Forming of Aluminum 2008-T4 Conical Cups Using Force Trajectory Control

1993-03-01
930286
In this paper we investigate the optimal forming of conical cups of AL 2008-T4 through the use of real-time process control. We consider a flat, frictional binder the force of which can be determined precisely through closed-loop control. Initially the force is held constant throughout the forming of the cup, and various levels of force are tested experimentally and with numerical simulation. Excellent agreement between experiment and simulation is observed. The effects of binder force on cup shape, thickness distribution, failure mode and cup failure height are investigated, and an “optimal” constant binder force is determined. For this optimal case, the corresponding punch force is recorded as a function of punch displacement and is used in subsequent closed-loop control experiments. In addition to the constant force test, a trial variable binder force test was performed to extend the failure height beyond that obtained using the “optimal” constant force level.
Technical Paper

Anthropometric and Blood Flow Characteristics Leading to EVA Hand Injury

2009-07-12
2009-01-2471
The aim of this study was to explore if fingernail delamination injury following EMU glove use may be caused by compression-induced blood flow occlusion in the finger. During compression tests, finger blood flow decreased more than 60%, however this occurred more rapidly for finger pad compression (4 N) than for fingertips (10 N). A pressure bulb compression test resulted in 50% and 45% decreased blood flow at 100 mmHg and 200 mmHg, respectively. These results indicate that the finger pad pressure required to articulate stiff gloves is more likely to contribute to injury than the fingertip pressure associated with tight fitting gloves.
Technical Paper

The Anatomy of Knock

2016-04-05
2016-01-0704
The combustion process after auto-ignition is investigated. Depending on the non-uniformity of the end gas, auto-ignition could initiate a flame, produce pressure waves that excite the engine structure (acoustic knock), or result in detonation (normal or developing). For the “acoustic knock” mode, a knock intensity (KI) is defined as the pressure oscillation amplitude. The KI values over different cycles under a fixed operating condition are observed to have a log-normal distribution. When the operating condition is changed (over different values of λ, EGR, and spark timing), the mean (μ) of log (KI/GIMEP) decreases linearly with the correlation-based ignition delay calculated using the knock-point end gas condition of the mean cycle. The standard deviation σ of log(KI/GIMEP) is approximately a constant, at 0.63. The values of μ and σ thus allow a statistical description of knock from the deterministic calculation of the ignition delay using the mean cycle properties
Technical Paper

Additional Findings on the Multi-Modal Demands of “Voice-Command” Interfaces

2016-04-05
2016-01-1428
This paper presents the results of a study of how people interacted with a production voice-command based interface while driving on public roadways. Tasks included phone contact calling, full address destination entry, and point-of-interest (POI) selection. Baseline driving and driving while engaging in multiple-levels of an auditory-vocal cognitive reference task and manual radio tuning were used as comparison points. Measures included self-reported workload, task performance, physiological arousal, glance behavior, and vehicle control for an analysis sample of 48 participants (gender balanced across ages 21-68). Task analysis and glance measures confirm earlier findings that voice-command interfaces do not always allow the driver to keep their hands on the wheel and eyes on the road, as some assume.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Space Suit: Physiological Implications for Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

2000-07-10
2000-01-2257
Extravehicular activity (EVA) is investigated through experiments testing an actual extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) performing several EVA tasks in the laboratory, and a dynamic model of the EMU space suit is developed. Building directly on earlier work in EVA simulation, the space suit model was created from mass, inertia, and performance data to augment the unsuited 12-segment human model used in previous studies. A modified Preisach model was used to mathematically describe the hysteretic torque characteristics of joints in a pressurized space suit, and implemented numerically based on observed suit parameters. Computational simulations, based loosely on a 1995 EVA involving manipulation of the Spartan astrophysics payload, were performed to observe the effect of suit constraints on simulated astronaut performance.
Technical Paper

Bio-Suit Development: Viable Options for Mechanical Counter Pressure

2004-07-19
2004-01-2294
Human explorers of planetary surfaces would benefit greatly from a spacesuit design that facilitates locomotion. To aid in the development of such an extravehicular activity suit, a design effort incorporating the concept of mechanical counter pressure (MCP) was undertaken. Three-dimensional laser scanning of the human body was used to identify the main effects of knee flexion angle on the size and shape of the leg. This laser scanning quantified the changes in shape that must be supported by an MCP garment and the tension that must be developed to produce even MCP. Evaluation of a hybrid-MCP concept using inextensible materials demonstrated strong agreement between experimental data and a mathematical model with rigid cylinder geometry. Testing of a form-fitting garment on the right lower leg of a subject demonstrated successful pressure production. Further research is required to evaluate how evenly pressure can be distributed using the hybrid-MCP concept.
Journal Article

On-Board Particulate Filter Failure Prevention and Failure Diagnostics Using Radio Frequency Sensing

2017-03-28
2017-01-0950
The increasing use of diesel and gasoline particulate filters requires advanced on-board diagnostics (OBD) to prevent and detect filter failures and malfunctions. Early detection of upstream (engine-out) malfunctions is paramount to preventing irreversible damage to downstream aftertreatment system components. Such early detection can mitigate the failure of the particulate filter resulting in the escape of emissions exceeding permissible limits and extend the component life. However, despite best efforts at early detection and filter failure prevention, the OBD system must also be able to detect filter failures when they occur. In this study, radio frequency (RF) sensors were used to directly monitor the particulate filter state of health for both gasoline particulate filter (GPF) and diesel particulate filter (DPF) applications.
Technical Paper

Continuous Particulate Filter State of Health Monitoring Using Radio Frequency Sensing

2018-04-03
2018-01-1260
Reliable means for on-board detection of particulate filter failures or malfunctions are needed to meet diagnostics (OBD) requirements. Detecting these failures, which result in tailpipe particulate matter (PM) emissions exceeding the OBD limit, over all operating conditions is challenging. Current approaches employ differential pressure sensors and downstream PM sensors, in combination with particulate filter and engine-out soot models. These conventional monitors typically operate over narrowly-defined time windows and do not provide a direct measure of the filter’s state of health. In contrast, radio frequency (RF) sensors, which transmit a wireless signal through the filter substrate provide a direct means for interrogating the condition of the filter itself.
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