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Technical Paper

Inverse Method for Measuring Weld Temperatures during Resistance Spot Welding

2001-03-05
2001-01-0437
A new monitoring system predicts the progression of welding temperature fields during resistance spot welding. The system captures welding voltages and currents to predict contact diameters and simulate temperature fields. The system accurately predicts fusion lines and heat-affected zones. Accuracy holds even for electrode tips used for a few thousand welds of zinc coated steels.
Technical Paper

Time-Resolved, Speciated Emissions from an SI Engine During Starting and Warm-Up

1996-10-01
961955
A sampling system was developed to measure the evolution of the speciated hydrocarbon emissions from a single-cylinder SI engine in a simulated starting and warm-up procedure. A sequence of exhaust samples was drawn and stored for gas chromatograph analysis. The individual sampling aperture was set at 0.13 s which corresponds to ∼ 1 cycle at 900 rpm. The positions of the apertures (in time) were controlled by a computer and were spaced appropriately to capture the warm-up process. The time resolution was of the order of 1 to 2 cycles (at 900 rpm). Results for four different fuels are reported: n-pentane/iso-octane mixture at volume ratio of 20/80 to study the effect of a light fuel component in the mixture; n-decane/iso-octane mixture at 10/90 to study the effect of a heavy fuel component in the mixture; m-xylene and iso-octane at 25/75 to study the effect of an aromatics in the mixture; and a calibration gasoline.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of Post-Flame Oxidation of Hydrocarbons in Spark Ignition Engines

1997-02-24
970886
About 50-90 percent of the hydrocarbons that escape combustion during flame passage in spark-ignition engine operation are oxidized in the cylinder before leaving the system. The process involves the transport of unreacted fuel from cold walls towards the hotter burned gas regions and subsequent reaction. In order to understand controlling factors in the process, a transient one-dimensional reactive-diffusive model has been formulated for simulating the oxidation processes taking place in the reactive layer between hot burned gases and cold unreacted air/fuel mixture, with initial and boundary conditions provided by the emergence of hydrocarbons from the piston top land crevice. Energy and species conservation equations are solved for the entire process, using a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for propane.
Technical Paper

Economic and Environmental Tradeoffs in New Automotive Painting Technologies

1998-02-23
981164
Painting is the most expensive unit operation in automobile manufacturing and the source of over 90 percent of the air, water and solid waste emissions at the assembly plant. While innovative paint technologies such as waterborne or powder paints can potentially improve plant environmental performance, implementing these technologies often requires major capital investment. A process-based technical cost model was developed for examining the environmental and economic implications of automotive painting at the unit operation level. The tradeoffs between potential environmental benefits and their relative costs are evaluated for current and new technologies.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Dilution Process for Measurement of Particulate Matter from Spark-Ignition Engines

1998-10-19
982601
Measurements of particulate matter (PM) from spark ignition (SI) engine exhaust using dilution tunnels will become more prevalent as emission standards are tightened. Hence, a study of the dilution process was undertaken in order to understand how various dilution related parameters affect the accuracy with which PM sizes and concentrations can be determined. A SI and a compression ignition (CI) engine were separately used to examine parameters of the dilution process; the present work discusses the results in the context of SI exhaust dilution. A Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) was used to measure the size distribution, number density, and volume fraction of PM. Temperature measurements in the exhaust pipe and dilution tunnel reveal the degree of mixing between exhaust and dilution air, the effect of flowrate on heat transfer from undiluted and diluted exhaust to the environment, and the minimum permissible dilution ratio for a maximum sample temperature of 52°C.
Technical Paper

Liquid Fuel Visualization Using Laser-Induced Fluoresence During Cold Start

1998-10-19
982466
The presence of liquid fuel inside the engine cylinder is believed to be a strong contributor to the high levels of hydrocarbon emissions from spark ignition (SI) engines during the warm-up period. Quantifying and determining the fate of the liquid fuel that enters the cylinder is the first step in understanding the process of emissions formation. This work uses planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) to visualize the liquid fuel present in the cylinder. The fluorescing compounds in indolene, and mixtures of iso-octane with dopants of different boiling points (acetone and 3-pentanone) were used to trace the behavior of different volatility components. Images were taken of three different planes through the engine intersecting the intake valve region. A closed valve fuel injection strategy was used, as this is the strategy most commonly used in practice. Background subtraction and masking were both performed to reduce the effect of any spurious fluorescence.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Fuel Behavior in the Spark-Ignition Engine Start-Up Process

1995-02-01
950678
An analysis method for characterizing fuel behavior during spark-ignition engine starting has been developed and applied to several sets of start-up data. The data sets were acquired from modern production vehicles during room temperature engine start-up. Two different engines, two control schemes, and two engine temperatures (cold and hot) were investigated. A cycle-by-cycle mass balance for the fuel was used to compare the amount of fuel injected with the amount burned or exhausted as unburned hydrocarbons. The difference was measured as “fuel unaccounted for”. The calculation for the amount of fuel burned used an energy release analysis of the cylinder pressure data. The results include an overview of starting behavior and a fuel accounting for each data set Overall, starting occurred quickly with combustion quality, manifold pressure, and engine speed beginning to stabilize by the seventh cycle, on average.
Technical Paper

Effects of Lubrication System Parameters on Diesel Particulate Emission Characteristics

1996-02-01
960318
The effects of lubrication system parameters on particulate emission rate and composition were studied. Engine load, viscosity and piston-ring gap were varied. Particulate rate and composition were measured for multiple combinations of lubricant and ring-gap configurations at three different engine operating conditions. Particulate rates were higher with the lower viscosity oil and larger with the wider top-ring gap. At high load, the difference in particulate rate was due to changes in the non-soluble portion, while at medium and low loads, the change in particulate rate was due to differences in the lubricant-derived portion of the soluble organic fraction (SOF). Additionally, changes in the fuel-derived portion of the SOF were discovered and attributed to changes in fuel-absorption in the oil film.
Technical Paper

A Look at the Automotive-Turbine Regenerator System and Proposals to Improve Performance and Reduce Cost

1997-02-24
970237
The adoption of turbine engines for automotive power plants has been hampered by the high cost, high leakage and high wear rate of present designs of ceramic-matrix regenerators. Proposals are made and analyzed here for design directions to achieve substantial improvements in all three areas. These include lower-cost extruded and pressed matrices; and clamping seals coupled with incremental movement of the rotary-regenerator matrix.
Technical Paper

Extent of Oxidation of Hydrocarbons Desorbing from the Lubricant Oil Layer in Spark-ignition Engines

1996-02-01
960069
The extent of oxidation of hydrocarbons desorbing from the oil layer has been measured directly in a hydrogen-fueled, spark-ignited engine in which the lubricant oil was doped with a single component hydrocarbon. The amount of hydrocarbon desorbed and oxidized could be measured simultaneously as the dopant was only source of carbon-containing species. The fraction oxidized was strongly dependent on engine load, hydrogen fuel-air ratio and dopant chemical reactivity, but only modestly dependent on spark timing and nitrogen dilution levels below 20 percent. Fast FID measurements at the cylinder exit showed that the surviving hydrocarbons emerge late in the exhaust stroke.
Technical Paper

Cost Awareness in Design: The Role of Data Commonality

1996-02-01
960008
Enhanced information management techniques made available through emerging Information Technology platforms hold a promise of providing significant improvements in both the effectiveness and efficiency of developing complex products. Determining actual management implementations that deliver on this promise has often proven elusive. Work in conjunction with the Lean Aircraft Initiative at MIT has revealed a straight forward use of Information Technology that portends significant cost reductions. By integrating previously separate types of data involved in the process of product development, engineers and designers can make decisions that will significantly reduce ultimate costs. Since the results presented are not specific to particular technologies or manufacturing processes, the conclusions are broadly applicable.
Technical Paper

Predicting Product Manufacturing Costs from Design Attributes: A Complexity Theory Approach

1996-02-01
960003
This paper contains both theorems and correlations based on the idea that there is a uniform metric for measuring the complexity of mechanical parts. The metric proposed is the logarithm of dimension divided by tolerance. The theorems prove that, on the average, for a given manufacturing process, the time to fabricate is simply proportional to this metric. We show corrleations for manual turning (machine lathe process), manual milling (machine milling process), and the lay-up of composite stringers. In each case the accuracy of the time estimate is as good as that of traditional cost estimation methods, but the effort is much less. The coefficient for composite lay-up compares well to that obtained from basic physiological data (Fitts Law).
Technical Paper

Development of a Time and Space Resolved Sampling Probe Diagnostic for Engine Exhaust Hydrocarbons

1996-02-01
961002
In order to understand how unburned hydrocarbons emerge from SI engines and, in particular, how non-fuel hydrocarbons are formed and oxidized, a new gas sampling technique has been developed. A sampling unit, based on a combination of techniques used in the Fast Flame Ionization Detector (FFID) and wall-mounted sampling valves, was designed and built to capture a sample of exhaust gas during a specific period of the exhaust process and from a specific location within the exhaust port. The sampling unit consists of a transfer tube with one end in the exhaust port and the other connected to a three-way valve that leads, on one side, to a FFID and, on the other, to a vacuum chamber with a high-speed solenoid valve. Exhaust gas, drawn by the pressure drop into the vacuum chamber, impinges on the face of the solenoid valve and flows radially outward.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Gasoline Absorption into Engine Lubricating Oil

1996-05-01
961229
A method to collect and speciate the components of gasoline absorbed in the lubricant oil using gas chromatography has been developed. Samples were collected continuously from the piston skirt, baffle and sump in a Saturn engine. A long (18 hours) test was performed to determine the build up of hydrocarbons in the sump, and a shorter (25 min) test was performed to determine the build up of hydrocarbons in the piston skirt and baffle during engine warm-up. The first experiment showed that the total hydrocarbon concentration in the sump oil reached a steady state of about 1.35% mass fraction after 11 hours of engine operation. The relative concentration of individual fuel hydrocarbon species absorbed in the oil increases exponentially with boiling point. Most of the identified species in the oil consist of the heavy end aromatics. Similar compositions but lower concentrations were found for samples collected from the piston skirt during engine warm-up.
Technical Paper

3D Vortex Simulation of Intake Flow in a Port-Cylinder with a Valve Seat and a Moving Piston

1996-05-01
961195
A Lagrangian random vortex-boundary element method has been developed for the simulation of unsteady incompressible flow inside three-dimensional domains with time-dependent boundaries, similar to IC engines. The solution method is entirely grid-free in the fluid domain and eliminates the difficult task of volumetric meshing of the complex engine geometry. Furthermore, due to the Lagrangian evaluation of the convective processes, numerical viscosity is virtually removed; thus permitting the direct simulation of flow at high Reynolds numbers. In this paper, a brief description of the numerical methodology is given, followed by an example of induction flow in an off-centered port-cylinder assembly with a harmonically driven piston and a valve seat situated directly below the port. The predicted flow is shown to resemble the flow visualization results of a laboratory experiment, despite the crude approximation used to represent the geometry.
Technical Paper

Aggregate Vehicle Emission Estimates for Evaluating Control Strategies

1994-03-01
940303
Currently, states that are out of compliance with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards must, according to the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA), develop and implement control strategies that demonstrate specific degrees of reduction in emissions-with the degree of reduction depending upon the severity of the problem. One tool that has been developed to aid regulators in both deciding an appropriate course of action and to demonstrate the desired reductions in mobile emissions is EPA's Mobile 5a emission estimation model. In our study, Mobile 5a has been used to examine the effects of regulatory strategies, as applied to the Northeast United States, on vehicle emissions under worst-case ozone-forming conditions.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Crevices on the Engine-Out Hydrocarbon Emissions in SI Engines

1994-03-01
940306
To understand the effects of crevices on the engine-out hydrocarbon emissions, a series of engine experiments was carried out with different piston crevice volumes and with simulated head gasket crevices. The engine-out HC level was found to be modestly sensitive to the piston crevice size in both the warmed-up and the cold engines, but more sensitive to the crevice volume in the head gasket region. A substantial decrease in HC in the cold-to-warm-up engine transition was observed and is attributed mostly to the change in port oxidation.
Technical Paper

A Species-Based Multi-Component Volatility Model for Gasoline

1994-10-01
941877
A fuel volatility model based on the major species present in the fuel has been formulated. The model accurately predicts the ASTM distillation curves and Reid Vapor Pressure for hydrocarbon fuels. The model may be used to assess the fuel effects on the extent of evaporation and the vapor composition in the mixture preparation process.
Technical Paper

Auto-Oil Program Phase II Heavy Hydrocarbon Study: Analysis of Engine-Out Hydrocarbon Emissions Data

1994-10-01
941966
The engine-out (EO) total and speciated hydrocarbon emissions data from the Auto-Oil Program Phase II Heavy Hydrocarbon Study had been analyzed. The methodology was to first investigate the stabilized EO emissions (Bag 2) of a specific vehicle (Vehicle 04B, a 1989 Model Year Ford Taurus); then the vehicle-to-vehicle differences in Bag2 emissions were considered. Finally, the differences in the Bag2 and the starting/warm-up EO emissions (Bag1) were examined. The speciated emissions may be interpreted as a “feed-through” part due to the unreacted fuel species, and an “offset” part due to the decomposition products. The significant non-fuel emitted species were methane and the olefins. The HC emissions for vehicles with different total emissions were similar in species composition. For both the total and speciated emissions, there was no substantial difference between the Bag1 and Bag2 values for Vehicle 04B.
Technical Paper

Novel Experiment on In-Cylinder Desorption of Fuel from the Oil Layer

1994-10-01
941963
A technique has been developed to measure the desorption and subsequent oxidation of fuel in the oil layer by spiking the oil with liquid fuel and firing the engine on gaseous fuel or motoring with air. Experiments suggest that fuel desorption is not diffusion limited above 50 °C and indicated that approximately two to four percent of the cylinder oil layer is fresh oil from the sump. The increase in hydrocarbon emissions is of the order of 100 ppmC1 per 1% liquid fuel introduced into the fresh oil in a methane fired engine at mid-speed and light load conditions. Calculations indicate that fuel desorbing from oil is much more likely to produce hydrocarbon emissions than fuel emerging from crevices.
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