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Technical Paper

A Look at the Automotive-Turbine Regenerator System and Proposals to Improve Performance and Reduce Cost

The adoption of turbine engines for automotive power plants has been hampered by the high cost, high leakage and high wear rate of present designs of ceramic-matrix regenerators. Proposals are made and analyzed here for design directions to achieve substantial improvements in all three areas. These include lower-cost extruded and pressed matrices; and clamping seals coupled with incremental movement of the rotary-regenerator matrix.
Technical Paper

Auto-Oil Program Phase II Heavy Hydrocarbon Study: Fuel Species Oxidation Chemistry and Its Relationship to the Auto-Oil Data

The oxidation chemistry of paraffins, aromatics, olefins and MTBE were examined. Detailed chemical kinetics calculations were carried out for oxidation of these compounds in the engine cycle. The oxidation rates are very sensitive to temperature. At temperatures of over 1400 K (depending on the fuel), all the hydrocarbons are essentially oxidized for typical residence time in the engine. Based on the kinetics calculations, a threshold temperature is defined for the conversion of the fuel species to CO, CO2, H2O and partially oxidized products. The difference in the survival fraction between aromatics and non-aromatics is attributed to the higher threshold temperature of the aromatics.
Technical Paper

Chemical Kinetic Modeling of the Oxidation of Unburned Hydrocarbons

The chemistry of unburned hydrocarbon oxidation in SI engine exhaust was modeled as a function of temperature and concentration of unburned gas for lean and rich mixtures. Detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms were used to model isothermal reactions of unburned fuel/air mixture in an environment of burned gases at atmospheric pressure. Simulations were performed using five pure fuels (methane, ethane, propane, n-butane and toluene) for which chemical kinetic mechanisms and steady state hydrocarbon (HC) emissions data were available. A correlation is seen between reaction rates and HC emissions for different fuels. Calculated relative amounts of intermediate oxidation products are shown to be consistent with experimental measurements.
Technical Paper

Draw Bead Penetration as a Control Element of Material Flow

Draw beads are widely utilized as a mechanism for providing proper restraining force to a sheet in a forming operation. In this paper, numerical simulations using the nonlinear finite element method are conducted to model the process of drawing a sheet through various draw bead configurations to study the mechanics of draw bead restraint. By examing the sensitivity of the draw bead restraining force due to the change of the draw bead penetration, the work shows that the penetration has the potential to be a very good element for varying and controlling restraining force during the process. A closed-loop feedback control of draw bead penetration using a proportional-integral controller is achieved by the combination of the original finite element simulation and a special element which links penetration to a pre-defined restraining force trajectory.
Technical Paper

A CAD-Driven Flexible Forming System for Three-Dimensional Sheet Metal Parts

A novel system for the forming of three dimensional sheet metal parts is described that can form a variety of part shapes without the need for fixed tooling, and given only geometry (CAD) information about the desired part. The central elements of this system are a tooling concept based on a programmable discrete die surface and closed-loop shape control. The former give the process the degrees of freedom to change shape rapidly, and the latter is used to insure that the correct shape is formed with a minimum of forming trials. A 540 kN (60 ton) lab press has been constructed with a 0.3 m (12 in) square pair of discrete tools that can be rapidly re-shaped between forming trials. The shape control system uses measured part shapes to determine a shape error and to correct the tooling shape. This correction is based on a unique “Deformation Transfer Function” approach using a spatial frequency decomposition of the surface.
Technical Paper

Optimal Forming of Aluminum 2008-T4 Conical Cups Using Force Trajectory Control

In this paper we investigate the optimal forming of conical cups of AL 2008-T4 through the use of real-time process control. We consider a flat, frictional binder the force of which can be determined precisely through closed-loop control. Initially the force is held constant throughout the forming of the cup, and various levels of force are tested experimentally and with numerical simulation. Excellent agreement between experiment and simulation is observed. The effects of binder force on cup shape, thickness distribution, failure mode and cup failure height are investigated, and an “optimal” constant binder force is determined. For this optimal case, the corresponding punch force is recorded as a function of punch displacement and is used in subsequent closed-loop control experiments. In addition to the constant force test, a trial variable binder force test was performed to extend the failure height beyond that obtained using the “optimal” constant force level.
Technical Paper


THE autoignition characteristics of several fuels under various conditions of mixture strength, compression ratio, and temperature have been studied by means of a rapid-compression machine. The behaviors of a knock inhibitor, tetraethyl lead, and a knock inducer, ethyl nitrite, have also been studied. Simultaneous records of pressure, volume, and the inflammation have been obtained. These records show the diverse aspects of the autoignition phenomenon and indicate, among other things, according to the authors, that a comparison of the detonating tendencies of fuels must include not only a consideration of the length of the delay period but also an evaluation of the rate of pressure rise during autoignition. Physical interpretations of the data are presented but chemical interpretations have been avoided. The work was exploratory in nature. The authors hope that the results will stimulate activity in this important branch of combustion research.
Technical Paper

Lab Study of Urea Deposit Formation and Chemical Transformation Process of Diesel Aftertreatment System

Diesel exhaust fluid, DEF, (32.5 wt.% urea aqueous solution) is widely used as the NH3 source for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx in diesel aftertreatment systems. The transformation of sprayed liquid phase DEF droplets to gas phase NH3 is a complex physical and chemical process. Briefly, it experiences water vaporization, urea thermolysis/decomposition and hydrolysis. Depending on the DEF doser, decomposition reaction tube (DRT) design and operating conditions, incomplete decomposition of injected urea could lead to solid urea deposit formation in the diesel aftertreatment system. The formed deposits could lead to engine back pressure increase and DeNOx performance deterioration etc. The formed urea deposits could be further transformed to chemically more stable substances upon exposure to hot exhaust gas, therefore it is critical to understand this transformation process.
Technical Paper

Economic Analysis of Hydro-Mechanical Sheet Metal Forming

Recent industry trends have resulted in growing interest among automakers in low to medium volume manufacturing. The expansion of automobile production into developing economies and the desire to produce specialized vehicles for niche markets have pressed the automakers to find cost effective solutions for manufacturing at low volumes, particularly with regard to sheet metal forming. Conventional high volume stamping operations rely heavily on achieving minimum scale economies which occur at about 200,000 parts per year. These scale economies are mainly dictated by the efficient use of the standard, expensive cast iron dies. These dies can cost well over one million dollars depending on the part, and in return offer tool lives over 5 million strokes. Die investment can be reduced by changing the stamping process technology. Hydro-mechanical forming has been proposed as a promising low volume alternative to conventional stamping.
Technical Paper

Alternative Tooling Technologies for Low Volume Stamping

Low volume manufacturing has become increasingly important for the automotive industry. Globalization trends have led automakers and their suppliers to operate in developing regions where minimum efficient scales can not always be achieved. With proper maintenance, standard cast iron stamping tools can be used to produce millions of parts, but require large investments. Thus at high production volumes, the impact of the tooling investment on individual piece costs is minimized. However, at low volumes there is a substantial cost penalty. In light of the trends towards localized manufacturing and relatively low demands in some developing markets, low cost stamping tools are needed. Several alternate tooling technologies exist, each of which require significantly lower initial investments, but suffer from greatly reduced tool lives. However, the use of these technologies at intermediate to high volumes requires multiple tool sets thus eliminating their cost advantage.
Technical Paper

Detailed Calculation of Heating, Evaporation, and Reaction Processes of a Thin Liquid Layer of Hydrocarbon Fuel

A one-dimensional model has been developed for the species and energy transfer over a thin (0.1-0.5 mm) layer of liquid fuel present on the wall of a spark-ignition engine. Time-varying boundary conditions during compression and flame passage were used to determine the rate of methanol vaporization and oxidation over a mid-speed, mid-load cycle, as a function of wall temperature. The heat of vaporization and the boiling point of the fuel were varied about a baseline to determine the effect of these characteristics, at a fixed operating point and lean conditions (ϕ = 0.9). The calculations show that the evaporation of fuels from layers on cold walls starts during flame passage, peaking a few milliseconds later, and continuing through the exhaust phase.
Technical Paper

Engine Wear Modeling with Sensitivity to Lubricant Chemistry: A Theoretical Framework

The life of an automotive engine is often limited by the ability of its components to resist wear. Zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) is an engine oil additive that reduces wear in an engine by forming solid antiwear films at points of moving contact. The effects of this additive are fairly well understood, but there is little theory behind the kinetics of antiwear film formation and removal. This lack of dynamic modeling makes it difficult to predict the effects of wear at the design stage for an engine component or a lubricant formulation. The purpose of this discussion is to develop a framework for modeling the formation and evolution of ZDDP antiwear films based on the relevant chemical pathways and physical mechanisms at work.
Technical Paper

Crash Safety of Lithium-Ion Batteries Towards Development of a Computational Model

Battery packs for Hybrids, Plug-in Hybrids, and Electric Vehicles are assembled from a system of modules (sheets) with a tight sheet metal casing around them. Each module consists of an array of individual cells which vary in the composition of electrodes and separator from one manufacturer to another. In this paper a general procedure is outlined on the development of a constitutive and computational model of a cylindrical cell. Particular emphasis is placed on correct prediction of initiation and propagation of a tearing fracture of the steel can. The computational model correctly predicts rupture of the steel can which could release aggressive chemicals, fumes, or spread the ignited fire to the neighboring cells. The initiation site of skin fracture depends on many factors such as the ductility of the casing material, constitutive behavior of the system of electrodes, and type of loading.
Journal Article

The Underlying Physics and Chemistry behind Fuel Sensitivity

Recent studies have shown that for a given RON, fuels with a higher sensitivity (RON-MON) tend to have better antiknock performance at most knock-limited conditions in modern engines. The underlying chemistry behind fuel sensitivity was therefore investigated to understand why this trend occurs. Chemical kinetic models were used to study fuels of varying sensitivities; in particular their autoignition delay times and chemical intermediates were compared. As is well known, non-sensitive fuels tend to be paraffins, while the higher sensitivity fuels tend to be olefins, aromatics, diolefins, napthenes, and alcohols. A more exact relationship between sensitivity and the fuel's chemical structure was not found to be apparent. High sensitivity fuels can have vastly different chemical structures. The results showed that the autoignition delay time (τ) behaved differently at different temperatures. At temperatures below 775 K and above 900 K, τ has a strong temperature dependence.