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Technical Paper

Modeling the Spark Ignition Engine Warm-Up Process to Predict Component Temperatures and Hydrocarbon Emissions

1991-02-01
910302
In order to understand better the operation of spark-ignition engines during the warm-up period, a computer model had been developed which simulates the thermal processes of the engine. This model is based on lumped thermal capacitance methods for the major engine components, as well as the exhaust system. Coolant and oil flows, and their respective heat transfer rates are modeled, as well as friction heat generation relations. Piston-liner heat transfer is calculated based on a thermal resistance method, which includes the effects of piston and ring material and design, oil film thickness, and piston-liner crevice. Piston/liner crevice changes are calculated based on thermal expansion rates and are used in conjunction with a crevice-region unburned hydrocarbon model to predict the contribution to emissions from this source.
Technical Paper

A Methodology for Evaluating Body Architecture Concepts Using Technical Cost Modeling

2011-04-12
2011-01-0767
The ability to make accurate decisions concerning early body-in-white architectures is critical to an automaker since these decisions often have long term cost and weight impacts. We address this need with a methodology which can be used to assist in body architecture decisions using process-based technical cost modeling (TCM) as a filter to evaluate alternate designs. Despite the data limitations of early design concepts, TCM can be used to identify key trends for cost-effectiveness between design variants. A compact body-in-white architecture will be used as a case study to illustrate this technique. The baseline steel structure will be compared to several alternate aluminum intensive structures in the context of production volume.
Technical Paper

The Sensitivity of DPF Performance to the Spatial Distribution of Ash Inside DPF Inlet Channels

2013-04-08
2013-01-1584
Ash inside a honeycomb-configured diesel particulate filter (DPF) inlet channel accumulates both as a cake layer along the channel walls and as a “plug” towards the back of the channel. Experimental studies of DPF ash distribution have shown both an axial variation of deposits along channels and accumulation towards the end plugs. This study evaluates the sensitivity of DPF pressure drop on ash axial distribution and the potential to reduce flow restrictions by controlling and optimizing the spatial distribution of ash inside DPF channels. A computational model has been used in conjunction with experimental data to illustrate the sensitivity of ash spatial distribution on DPF performance. The classical constant-thickness DPF one-dimensional models have substantially been updated to include layer thickness axial variations. Material properties, such as ash characteristics, are provided by recent experiments at the authors' laboratory.
Technical Paper

Alternative Tooling Technologies for Low Volume Stamping

1999-09-28
1999-01-3216
Low volume manufacturing has become increasingly important for the automotive industry. Globalization trends have led automakers and their suppliers to operate in developing regions where minimum efficient scales can not always be achieved. With proper maintenance, standard cast iron stamping tools can be used to produce millions of parts, but require large investments. Thus at high production volumes, the impact of the tooling investment on individual piece costs is minimized. However, at low volumes there is a substantial cost penalty. In light of the trends towards localized manufacturing and relatively low demands in some developing markets, low cost stamping tools are needed. Several alternate tooling technologies exist, each of which require significantly lower initial investments, but suffer from greatly reduced tool lives. However, the use of these technologies at intermediate to high volumes requires multiple tool sets thus eliminating their cost advantage.
Technical Paper

A Model For Estimating Oil Vaporization From The Cylinder Liner As A Contributing Mechanism to Engine Oil Consumption

1999-05-03
1999-01-1520
A model has been developed for estimating the oil vaporization rate from the cylinder liner of a reciprocating engine. The model uses input from an external cycle simulator and an external liner oil film thickness model. It allows for the change in oil composition and the change in oil film thickness due to vaporization. It also estimates how the passage of the compression and scraper rings combine with the vaporization to influence the steady-state composition of the oil layer in the upper ring pack. Computer model results are presented for a compression-ignition engine using a range of liner temperatures, several engine speeds, and two different oils. Vaporization is found to be highly dependent on liner temperature and steady-state oil composition. The steady-state oil composition near the top of the cylinder is found to be significantly different than the composition of the oil near the bottom of the cylinder.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Space Suit: Physiological Implications for Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

2000-07-10
2000-01-2257
Extravehicular activity (EVA) is investigated through experiments testing an actual extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) performing several EVA tasks in the laboratory, and a dynamic model of the EMU space suit is developed. Building directly on earlier work in EVA simulation, the space suit model was created from mass, inertia, and performance data to augment the unsuited 12-segment human model used in previous studies. A modified Preisach model was used to mathematically describe the hysteretic torque characteristics of joints in a pressurized space suit, and implemented numerically based on observed suit parameters. Computational simulations, based loosely on a 1995 EVA involving manipulation of the Spartan astrophysics payload, were performed to observe the effect of suit constraints on simulated astronaut performance.
Technical Paper

Development and Implementation of a Powertrain Electrical System Simulator with Computer-Controlled Fault Generation

2006-04-03
2006-01-1599
To manage the function of a vehicle's engine, transmission, and related subsystems, almost all modern vehicles make use of one or more electronic controllers running embedded software, henceforth referred to as a Powertrain Controller System or PCS. Fully validating this PCS is a necessary step of vehicle development, and the validation process requires extensive amounts of testing. Within the automotive industry, more and more of this validation testing is being performed using Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) simulators to automate the extensive test sequences. A HIL simulation typically mates the physical PCS to a closed-loop real time computer simulation of a powertrain. Interfacing the physical PCS hardware to a powertrain simulation requires the HIL simulator to have extensive signal input/output (I/O) electronics and simulated actuator electrical loading.
Technical Paper

Crashworthiness of Thin Ultra-light Stainless Steel Sandwich Sheets: From the Design of Core Materials to Structural Applications

2004-03-08
2004-01-0886
Thin sandwich sheets hold a promise for widespread use in automotive industry due to their good crash and formability properties. In this paper, thin stainless steel sandwich sheets with low-density core materials are investigated with regard to their performance in crashworthiness applications. The total thickness of the sandwich materials is about 1.2mm: 0.2mm thick facings and a 0.8mm thick sandwich core. Throughout the crushing of prismatic sandwich profiles, the sandwich facings are bent and stretched while the sandwich core is crushed under shear loading. Thus, a high shear crushing strength of the sandwich core material is beneficial for the overall energy absorption of the sandwich profile. It is shown theoretically that the weight specific shear crushing strength of hexagonal metallic honeycombs is higher than the one of fiber cores - irrespective of their relative density or microstructural geometry.
Technical Paper

Modeling Space Suit Mobility: Applications to Design and Operations

2001-07-09
2001-01-2162
Computer simulation of extravehicular activity (EVA) is increasingly being used in planning and training for EVA. A space suit model is an important, but often overlooked, component of an EVA simulation. Because of the inherent difficulties in collecting angle and torque data for space suit joints in realistic conditions, little data exists on the torques that a space suit’s wearer must provide in order to move in the space suit. A joint angle and torque database was compiled on the Extravehicular Maneuvering Unit (EMU), with a novel measurement technique that used both human test subjects and an instrumented robot. Using data collected in the experiment, a hysteresis modeling technique was used to predict EMU joint torques from joint angular positions. The hysteresis model was then applied to EVA operations by mapping out the reach and work envelopes for the EMU.
Technical Paper

Achieving An Affordable Low Emission Steel Vehicle; An Economic Assessment of the ULSAB-AVC Program Design

2002-03-04
2002-01-0361
Vehicle weight reduction, reduced costs and improved safety performance are the main driving forces behind material selection for automotive applications. These goals are conflicting in nature and solutions will be realized by innovative design, advanced material processing and advanced materials. Advanced high strength steels are engineered materials that provide a remarkable combination of formability, strength, ductility, durability, strain-rate sensitivity and strain hardening characteristics essential to meeting the goals of automotive design. These characteristics act as enablers to cost- and mass-effective solutions. The ULSAB-AVC program demonstrates a solution to these conflicting goals and the advantages that are possible with the utilization of the advance high strength steels and provides a prediction of the material content of future body structures.
Technical Paper

Crash Safety of Lithium-Ion Batteries Towards Development of a Computational Model

2010-04-12
2010-01-1078
Battery packs for Hybrids, Plug-in Hybrids, and Electric Vehicles are assembled from a system of modules (sheets) with a tight sheet metal casing around them. Each module consists of an array of individual cells which vary in the composition of electrodes and separator from one manufacturer to another. In this paper a general procedure is outlined on the development of a constitutive and computational model of a cylindrical cell. Particular emphasis is placed on correct prediction of initiation and propagation of a tearing fracture of the steel can. The computational model correctly predicts rupture of the steel can which could release aggressive chemicals, fumes, or spread the ignited fire to the neighboring cells. The initiation site of skin fracture depends on many factors such as the ductility of the casing material, constitutive behavior of the system of electrodes, and type of loading.
Journal Article

Oil Transport from Scraper Ring Step to Liner at Low Engine Speeds and Effect of Dimensions of Scraper Ring Step

2016-04-05
2016-01-0495
In gasoline engines, a scraper ring with a step on the bottom outer edge is widely used as a second ring. However, there lacks a fundamental understanding on the effects of this feature and its dimensions on oil transport. Inspired by observations from visualization experiments, this work combining computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and theoretical analysis shows that oil can be trapped in the space bordered by a second ring step and the chamfer of a piston third land. The trapped oil can be released to a liner when the piston is approaching the top dead center (TDC). This additional oil on the liner becomes a potential source of oil consumption. Such oil transport has been observed at typically less than 1500rpm. Since road vehicles often operate in this speed range, the newly-observed oil trapping and release can be closely associated with oil consumption in gasoline engines. In this work, a comprehensive study on oil trapping and release will be demonstrated.
Journal Article

AHSS Shear Fracture Predictions Based on a Recently Developed Fracture Criterion

2010-04-12
2010-01-0988
One of the issues in stamping of advanced high strength steels (AHSS) is the stretch bending fracture on a sharp radius (commonly referred to as shear fracture). Shear fracture typically occurs at a strain level below the conventional forming limit curve (FLC). Therefore it is difficult to predict in computer simulations using the FLC as the failure criterion. A modified Mohr-Coulomb (M-C) fracture criterion has been developed to predict shear fracture. The model parameters for several AHSS have been calibrated using various tests including the butter-fly shaped shear test. In this paper, validation simulations are conducted using the modified (M-C) fracture criterion for a dual phase (DP) 780 steel to predict fracture in the stretch forming simulator (SFS) test and the bending under tension (BUT) test. Various deformation fracture modes are analyzed, and the range of usability of the criterion is identified.
Technical Paper

Experiments and Analyses on Stability/Mid-Channel Collapse of Ash-Deposit Wall Layers and Pre-Mature Clogging of Diesel Particulate Filters

2019-04-02
2019-01-0972
The conventional concept of soot and ash wall deposits (i.e. cake-layers) gradually building up along the channels of a ceramic honeycomb and then periodically or continuously being swept downstream toward the end-plugs of the channels may not always occur in practice. When deposits irregularly form on or detach from the walls, causing premature clogging usually around the mid-sections of the channels (also known as Mid-Channel Collapse), and the particulate filter is prone to experiencing significantly elevated back pressure, resulting in the need for earlier repair or replacement than desired. Here we describe related experiments that were performed, accompanied by analysis and simulation, in order to investigate the factors that contribute to the patterns of wall deposits that form-particularly of ash-and the effects of these irregular patterns.
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