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Technical Paper

Spacelab Neurovestibular Hardware

1991-07-01
911566
A set of devices for measurement of human balance orientation and eye movements in weightlessness was developed for neurovestibular experiments on Spacelab. The experiments involve astronaut motion, limb position changes, and moving visual fields, measurements are made of eye movements, muscular activity and orientation perception. This joint US/Canadian research program represent a group of closely related experiments designed to investigate space motion sickness, any associated changes in otolith-mediated responses occurring during weightlessness, and the continuation of changes to postflight conditions. The otoliths are a component of the vestibular apparatus which is located in the middle ear. It is responsible for maintaining the body's balance. Gravitational pull on the otoliths causes them to constantly appraise the nervous system of the position of the head with respect to the direction of gravity.
Technical Paper

Knock in Spark Ignition Engines

1981-02-01
810147
The knocking characteristics of several fuels are studied using a single cylinder test engine with variations in key engine operating parameters. Compression ratio, spark advance, fuel equivalence ratio, exhaust gas recirculation, engine speed, charge inlet pressure and charge inlet temperature were varied to yield a range of engine cylinder pressure-temperature histories as the base for this study. The fuels studied include three reference fuels containing isooctane and heptane with isooctane volume percents of 80, 90 and 100. Two wide boiling range gasolines were also studied. A number of empirical relationships for autoignition times of isooctane and heptane blends are employed in conjunction with the experimentally obtained pressure-temperature histories to predict onset of knock. The accuracies of the predictions with respect to the experimentally determined knock points are discussed.
Technical Paper

Anthropometric and Blood Flow Characteristics Leading to EVA Hand Injury

2009-07-12
2009-01-2471
The aim of this study was to explore if fingernail delamination injury following EMU glove use may be caused by compression-induced blood flow occlusion in the finger. During compression tests, finger blood flow decreased more than 60%, however this occurred more rapidly for finger pad compression (4 N) than for fingertips (10 N). A pressure bulb compression test resulted in 50% and 45% decreased blood flow at 100 mmHg and 200 mmHg, respectively. These results indicate that the finger pad pressure required to articulate stiff gloves is more likely to contribute to injury than the fingertip pressure associated with tight fitting gloves.
Technical Paper

On the Maximum Pressure Rise Rate in Boosted HCCI Operation

2009-11-02
2009-01-2727
This paper explores the combined effects of boosting, intake air temperature, trapped residual gas fraction, and dilution on the Maximum Pressure Rise Rate (MPRR) in a boosted single cylinder gasoline HCCI engine with combustion controlled by negative valve overlap. Dilutions by both air and by cooled EGR were used. Because of the sensitivity of MPRR to boost, the MPRR constrained maximum load (as measured by the NIMEP) did not necessarily increase with boosting. At the same intake temperature and trapped residual gas fraction, dilution by recirculated burn gas was effective in reducing the MPRR, but dilution by air increased the value of MPRR. The dependence of MPRR on the operating condition was interpreted successfully by a simple thermodynamic analysis that related the MPRR value to the volumetric heat release rate.
Technical Paper

The Anatomy of Knock

2016-04-05
2016-01-0704
The combustion process after auto-ignition is investigated. Depending on the non-uniformity of the end gas, auto-ignition could initiate a flame, produce pressure waves that excite the engine structure (acoustic knock), or result in detonation (normal or developing). For the “acoustic knock” mode, a knock intensity (KI) is defined as the pressure oscillation amplitude. The KI values over different cycles under a fixed operating condition are observed to have a log-normal distribution. When the operating condition is changed (over different values of λ, EGR, and spark timing), the mean (μ) of log (KI/GIMEP) decreases linearly with the correlation-based ignition delay calculated using the knock-point end gas condition of the mean cycle. The standard deviation σ of log(KI/GIMEP) is approximately a constant, at 0.63. The values of μ and σ thus allow a statistical description of knock from the deterministic calculation of the ignition delay using the mean cycle properties
Technical Paper

Additional Findings on the Multi-Modal Demands of “Voice-Command” Interfaces

2016-04-05
2016-01-1428
This paper presents the results of a study of how people interacted with a production voice-command based interface while driving on public roadways. Tasks included phone contact calling, full address destination entry, and point-of-interest (POI) selection. Baseline driving and driving while engaging in multiple-levels of an auditory-vocal cognitive reference task and manual radio tuning were used as comparison points. Measures included self-reported workload, task performance, physiological arousal, glance behavior, and vehicle control for an analysis sample of 48 participants (gender balanced across ages 21-68). Task analysis and glance measures confirm earlier findings that voice-command interfaces do not always allow the driver to keep their hands on the wheel and eyes on the road, as some assume.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Space Suit: Physiological Implications for Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

2000-07-10
2000-01-2257
Extravehicular activity (EVA) is investigated through experiments testing an actual extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) performing several EVA tasks in the laboratory, and a dynamic model of the EMU space suit is developed. Building directly on earlier work in EVA simulation, the space suit model was created from mass, inertia, and performance data to augment the unsuited 12-segment human model used in previous studies. A modified Preisach model was used to mathematically describe the hysteretic torque characteristics of joints in a pressurized space suit, and implemented numerically based on observed suit parameters. Computational simulations, based loosely on a 1995 EVA involving manipulation of the Spartan astrophysics payload, were performed to observe the effect of suit constraints on simulated astronaut performance.
Technical Paper

Bio-Suit Development: Viable Options for Mechanical Counter Pressure

2004-07-19
2004-01-2294
Human explorers of planetary surfaces would benefit greatly from a spacesuit design that facilitates locomotion. To aid in the development of such an extravehicular activity suit, a design effort incorporating the concept of mechanical counter pressure (MCP) was undertaken. Three-dimensional laser scanning of the human body was used to identify the main effects of knee flexion angle on the size and shape of the leg. This laser scanning quantified the changes in shape that must be supported by an MCP garment and the tension that must be developed to produce even MCP. Evaluation of a hybrid-MCP concept using inextensible materials demonstrated strong agreement between experimental data and a mathematical model with rigid cylinder geometry. Testing of a form-fitting garment on the right lower leg of a subject demonstrated successful pressure production. Further research is required to evaluate how evenly pressure can be distributed using the hybrid-MCP concept.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Engine-Out Hydrocarbon Emissions for Prototype Production Engines

1995-02-01
950984
A model has been developed which predicts engine-out hydrocarbon (HC) emissions for spark-ignition engines. The model consists of a set of scaling laws that describe the individual processes that contribute to HC emissions. The model inputs are the critical engine design and operating variables. This set of individual process scaling relations was then calibrated using production spark-ignition engine data at a fixed light-load operating point. The data base consisted of engine-out HC emissions from two-valve and four-valve engine designs with variations in spark timing, valve timing, coolant temperature, crevice volume, and EGR, for five different engines. The model was calibrated separately for the three different engines to accommodate differences in engine design details and to determine the relative magnitudes of each of the major sources. A good fit to this database was obtained.
Journal Article

EGR Effects on Boosted SI Engine Operation and Knock Integral Correlation

2012-04-16
2012-01-0707
The effects of cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on a boosted direct-injection (DI) spark ignition (SI) engine operating at stoichiometric equivalence ratio, gross indicated mean effective pressure of 14-18 bar, and speed of 1500-2500 rpm, are studied under constant fuel condition at each operating point. In the presence of EGR, burn durations are longer and combustion is more retard. At the same combustion phasing, the indicated specific fuel consumption improves because of a decrease in heat loss and an increase in the specific heat ratio. The knock limited spark advance increases substantially with EGR. This increase is due partly to a slower combustion which is equivalent to a spark retard, as manifested by a retarded value of the 50% burn point (CA50), and due partly to a slower ignition chemistry of the diluted charge, as manifested by the knock limited spark advance to beyond the value offered by the retarded CA50.
Journal Article

On the High Load Limit of Boosted Gasoline HCCI Engine Operating in NVO Mode

2010-04-12
2010-01-0162
The high load limit of a boosted homogeneous-charge-compression-ignition (HCCI) engine operating on negative-valve-overlap (NVO) was assessed. When operating under stoichiometric condition with no external dilution, the load, as measured by the net indicated mean effective pressure (NIMEP), increased with increase in manifold absolute pressure (MAP), and with decrease in trapped amount of residual gas. The maximum pressure rise rate (MPRR), however, also increased correspondingly. When the MAP and the amount of residual gas were adjusted so that the engine operating point could be held at a constant MPRR value, the NIMEP increased with the simultaneous decrease in MAP and residual until the misfire limit was reached. Therefore if a MPRR ceiling is imposed, the high load limit of an HCCI engine is at the intersection of the constraining MPRR line and the misfire line.
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