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Technical Paper

Extent of Oxidation of Hydrocarbons Desorbing from the Lubricant Oil Layer in Spark-ignition Engines

1996-02-01
960069
The extent of oxidation of hydrocarbons desorbing from the oil layer has been measured directly in a hydrogen-fueled, spark-ignited engine in which the lubricant oil was doped with a single component hydrocarbon. The amount of hydrocarbon desorbed and oxidized could be measured simultaneously as the dopant was only source of carbon-containing species. The fraction oxidized was strongly dependent on engine load, hydrogen fuel-air ratio and dopant chemical reactivity, but only modestly dependent on spark timing and nitrogen dilution levels below 20 percent. Fast FID measurements at the cylinder exit showed that the surviving hydrocarbons emerge late in the exhaust stroke.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Gasoline Absorption into Engine Lubricating Oil

1996-05-01
961229
A method to collect and speciate the components of gasoline absorbed in the lubricant oil using gas chromatography has been developed. Samples were collected continuously from the piston skirt, baffle and sump in a Saturn engine. A long (18 hours) test was performed to determine the build up of hydrocarbons in the sump, and a shorter (25 min) test was performed to determine the build up of hydrocarbons in the piston skirt and baffle during engine warm-up. The first experiment showed that the total hydrocarbon concentration in the sump oil reached a steady state of about 1.35% mass fraction after 11 hours of engine operation. The relative concentration of individual fuel hydrocarbon species absorbed in the oil increases exponentially with boiling point. Most of the identified species in the oil consist of the heavy end aromatics. Similar compositions but lower concentrations were found for samples collected from the piston skirt during engine warm-up.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Operating Conditions at Idle in the S.I. Engine

1997-10-01
972990
A gasoline engine with an electronically controlled fuel injection system has substantially better fuel economy and lower emissions than a carburetted engine. In general, the stability of engine operation is improved with fuel injector, but the stability of engine operation at idle is not improved compared with a carburetted gasoline engine. In addition, the increase in time that an engine is at idle due to traffic congestion has an effect on the engine stability and vehicle reliability. Therefore, in this research, we will study the influence of fuel injection timing, spark timing, dwell angle, and air-fuel ratio on engine stability at idle.
Technical Paper

Engine-Out “Dry” Particular Matter Emissions from SI Engines

1997-10-01
972890
The Engine-Out Particulate Matter (EOPM) was collected from a spark ignition engine operating in steady state using a heated quartz fiber filter. The samples were weighted to obtain an EOPMindex and were analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscopy. The EOP Mindex was not sensitive to the engine rpm and load. When the mixture is very rich (air equivalence ratio λ less than ∼ 0.7), the EOPM comprise mostly of soot particles from fuel combustion. In the lean to slightly rich region (0.8 < λ < 1.2), however, the EOPM are dominated by particles derived from the lubrication oil.
Technical Paper

Making the Case for a Next Generation Automotive Electrical System

1998-10-19
98C006
Introduction of an array of new electrical and electronic features into future vehicles is generating vehicle electrical power requirements that exceed the capabilities of today's 14 volt electrical systems. In the near term (5 to 10 years), the existing 14V system will be marginally capable of supporting the expected additional loads with escalating costs for the associated charging system. However, significant increases in vehicle functional content are expected as future requirements to meet longer-term (beyond 10 years) needs in the areas of emission control, fuel economy, safety, and passenger comfort. A higher voltage electrical system will be required to meet these future requirements. This paper explores the functional needs that will mandate a higher voltage system and the benefits derivable from its implementation.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Piston Ring Friction and Oil Film Thickness Measurements in a Reciprocating Test Rig

1995-10-01
952470
A reciprocating test apparatus was constructed in which the friction of a single piston ring against a liner segment was measured. The lubrication oil film thickness was also measured simultaneously at the mid stroke of the ring travel using a laser fluorescence technique. The apparatus development and operation are described. Results are presented from a test matrix consisting of five different lubrication oils of viscosity (at 30°C) ranging from 49 to 357 cP; at three mean piston speeds of 0.45, 0.89 and 1.34 m/s; and at three ring normal loading of 1.4, 2.9 and 5.7 MPa. At mid stroke, the oil film thickness under the ring was ∼0.5 to 4 μm; the frictional coefficient was ∼0.02 to 0.1. The frictional coefficient for all the lubricants tested increased with normal load, and decreased with piston velocity. Both mixed and hydrodynamic lubrication regimes were observed. The friction behaviors were consistent with the Stribeck diagram.
Technical Paper

A Piston Ring-Pack Film Thickness and Friction Model for Multigrade Oils and Rough Surfaces

1996-10-01
962032
A complete one-dimensional mixed lubrication model has been developed to predict oil film thickness and friction of the piston ring-pack. An average flow model and a roughness contact model are used to consider the effects of surface roughness on both hydrodynamic and boundary lubrication. Effects of shear-thinning and liner temperature on lubricant viscosity are included. An inlet condition is applied by considering the unsteady wetting location at the leading edge of the ring. A ‘film non-separation’ exit condition is proposed to replace Reynolds exit condition when the oil squeezing becomes dominant. Three lubrication modes are considered in the model, namely, pure hydrodynamic, mixed, and pure boundary lubrication. All of these considerations are crucial for studying the oil transport, asperity contact, and friction especially in the top dead center (TDC) region where the oil control ring cannot reach.
Technical Paper

Real World Performance of an Onboard Gasoline/Ethanol Separation System to Enable Knock Suppression Using an Octane-On-Demand Fuel System

2018-04-03
2018-01-0879
Higher compression ratio and turbocharging, with engine downsizing can enable significant gains in fuel economy but require engine operating conditions that cause engine knock under high load. Engine knock can be avoided by supplying higher-octane fuel under such high load conditions. This study builds on previous MIT papers investigating Octane-On-Demand (OOD) to enable a higher efficiency, higher-boost higher compression-ratio engine. The high-octane fuel for OOD can be obtained through On-Board-Separation (OBS) of alcohol blended gasoline. Fuel from the primary fuel tank filled with commercially available gasoline that contains 10% by volume ethanol (E10) is separated by an organic membrane pervaporation process that produces a 30 to 90% ethanol fuel blend for use when high octane is needed. In addition to previous work, this paper combines modeling of the OBS system with passenger car and medium-duty truck fuel consumption and octane requirements for various driving cycles.
Technical Paper

LOOP SCAVENGING versus THROUGH SCAVENGING of TWO-STROKE ENGINES

1958-01-01
580044
THIS paper reports the latest investigation of the relative merits of loop scavenging versus through scavenging. The authors hope that the conditions of the work permitted an objective evaluation of the two types of engines. The results of the study may be summarized as follows: 1. With symmetrical timing, neither cylinder shows significant advantage in trapping efficiency. 2. With symmetrical timing, the best ratio of exhaust-port to inlet-port effective area seems to be about 0.6. 3. Unsymmetrical timing is an effective method of improving trapping efficiency. 4. The value of net indicated fuel economy shows no significant difference between the two cylinders. The authors point out that because the areas were equal it is unlikely that the optimum port design of each type was used in comparing the cylinders. If optimum porting had been used, the two types might have shown more difference.
Technical Paper

Oil Conditioning as a Means to Minimize Lubricant Ash Requirements and Extend Oil Drain Interval

2009-06-15
2009-01-1782
A novel approach to condition the lubricant at a fixed station in the oil circuit is explored as a potential means to reduce additive requirements or increase oil drain interval. This study examines the performance of an innovative oil filter which releases no additives into the lubricant, yet enhances the acid control function typically performed by detergent and dispersant additives. The filter chemically conditions the crankcase oil during engine operation by sequestering acidic compounds derived from engine combustion and lubricant degradation. Long duration tests with a heavy-duty diesel engine show that the oil conditioning with the strong base filter reduces lubricant acidity (TAN), improves Total Base Number (TBN) retention, and slows the rate of viscosity increase and oxidation. The results also indicate that there may be a reduction in wear and corrosion.
Technical Paper

In Situ Control of Lubricant Properties for Reduction of Power Cylinder Friction through Thermal Barrier Coating

2014-04-01
2014-01-1659
Lowering lubricant viscosity to reduce friction generally carries a side-effect of increased metal-metal contact in mixed or boundary lubrication, for example near top ring reversal along the engine cylinder liner. A strategy to reduce viscosity without increased metal-metal contact involves controlling the local viscosity away from top-ring-reversal locations. This paper discusses the implementation of insulation or thermal barrier coating (TBC) as a means of reducing local oil viscosity and power cylinder friction in internal combustion engines with minimal side-effects of increased wear. TBC is selectively applied to the outside diameter of the cylinder liner to increase the local oil temperature along the liner. Due to the temperature dependence of oil viscosity, the increase in temperature from insulation results in a decrease in the local oil viscosity.
Technical Paper

Optimizing Base Oil Viscosity Temperature Dependence For Power Cylinder Friction Reduction

2014-04-01
2014-01-1658
Lubricant viscosity along the engine cylinder liner varies by an order of magnitude due to local temperature variation and vaporization effects. Tremendous potential exists for fuel economy improvement by optimizing local viscosity variations for specific operating conditions. Methods for analytical estimation of friction and wear in the power-cylinder system are reviewed and used to quantify opportunities for improving mechanical efficiency and fuel economy through lubricant formulation tailored specifically to liner temperature distributions. Temperature dependent variations in kinematic viscosity, density, shear thinning, and lubricant composition are investigated. Models incorporating the modified Reynolds equation were used to estimate friction and wear under the top ring and piston skirt of a typical 11.0 liter diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Modeling of the Rotary Engine Apex Seal Lubrication

2015-09-01
2015-01-2035
The Wankel rotary engine is more compact than conventional piston engines, but its oil and fuel consumption must be reduced to satisfy emission standards and customer expectations. A key step toward this goal is to develop a better understanding of the apex seal lubrication to reduce oil injection while reducing friction and maintaining adequate wear. This paper presents an apex seal dynamics model capable of estimating relative wear and predicting friction, by modeling the gas and oil flows at the seal interfaces with the rotor housing and groove flanks. Model predictions show that a thin oil film can reduce wear and friction, but to a limited extent as the apex seal running face profile is sharp due to the engine kinematics.
Technical Paper

A One-Line Correlation for Predicting Oil Vaporization from Liner for IC Engines

2018-04-03
2018-01-0162
The increasingly stringent regulations for fuel economy and emissions require better optimization and control of oil consumption. One of the primary mechanisms of oil consumption is vaporization from the liner; we consider this as the “minimum oil consumption (MOC).” This paper presents a physical-mathematical cycle model for predicting the MOC. The numerical simulations suggest that the MOC is markedly sensitive to oil volatility, liner temperature, engine load and speed but less sensitive to oil film thickness. A one-line correlation is proposed for quick MOC estimations. It is shown to have <15% error compared to the cycle MOC computation. In the “dry region” (between top ring and OCR at the TDC), oil is depleted due to high heat and continual exposure to the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Investigating the Effect of Intake Manifold Size on the Transient Response of Single Cylinder Turbocharged Engines

2017-09-04
2017-24-0170
This paper evaluates the lag time in a turbocharged single cylinder engine in order to determine its viability in transient applications. The overall goal of this research is to increase the power output, reduce the fuel economy, and improve emissions of single cylinder engines through turbocharging. Due to the timing mismatch between the exhaust stroke, when the turbocharger is powered, and the intake stroke, when the engine intakes air, turbocharging is not conventionally used in commercial single cylinder engines. Our previous work has shown that it is possible to turbocharge a four stroke, single cylinder, internal combustion engine using an air capacitor, a large volume intake manifold in between the turbocharger compressor and engine intake. The air capacitor stores compressed air from the turbocharger during the exhaust stroke and delivers it during the intake stroke.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Measurement of Tribological Parameters between Piston Rings and Liner in Turbocharged Diesel Engine

2007-04-16
2007-01-1440
This paper presents tribological modeling, experimental work, and validation of tribology parameters of a single cylinder turbocharged diesel engine run at various loads, speeds, intake boost pressures, and cylinder liner temperatures. Analysis were made on piston rings and liner materials, rings mechanical and thermal loads, contact pressure between rings and liner, and lubricant conditions. The engine tribology parameters were measured, and used to validate the engine tribology models. These tribology parameters are: oil film thickness, coefficient of friction between rings and liner, friction force, friction power, friction torque, shear rate, shear stress and wear of the sliding surfaces. In order to measure the oil film thickness between rings and liner, a single cylinder AVL turbocharged diesel engine was instrumented to accept the difference in voltage drop method between rings, oil film, and liner.
Technical Paper

Engine Wear Modeling with Sensitivity to Lubricant Chemistry: A Theoretical Framework

2007-04-16
2007-01-1566
The life of an automotive engine is often limited by the ability of its components to resist wear. Zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) is an engine oil additive that reduces wear in an engine by forming solid antiwear films at points of moving contact. The effects of this additive are fairly well understood, but there is little theory behind the kinetics of antiwear film formation and removal. This lack of dynamic modeling makes it difficult to predict the effects of wear at the design stage for an engine component or a lubricant formulation. The purpose of this discussion is to develop a framework for modeling the formation and evolution of ZDDP antiwear films based on the relevant chemical pathways and physical mechanisms at work.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Sulfated Ash, Phosphorus and Sulfur on Diesel Aftertreatment Systems - A Review

2007-07-23
2007-01-1922
This paper reviews the relevant literature on the effects of sulfated ash, phosphorus, and sulfur on DPF, LNT, and SCR catalysts. Exhaust backpressure increase due to DPF ash accumulation, as well as the rate at which ash is consumed from the sump, were the most studied lubricant-derived DPF effects. Based on several studies, a doubling of backpressure can be estimated to occur within 270,000 to 490,000 km when using a 1.0% sulfated ash oil. Postmortem DPF analysis and exhaust gas measurements revealed that approximately 35% to 65% less ash was lost from the sump than was expected based on bulk oil consumption estimates. Despite significant effects from lubricant sulfur and phosphorus, loss of LNT NOX reduction efficiency is dominated by fuel sulfur effects. Phosphorus has been determined to have a mild poisoning effect on SCR catalysts. The extent of the effect that lubricant phosphorus and sulfur have on DOCs remains unclear, however, it appears to be minor.
Technical Paper

Modeling Costs and Fuel Economy Benefits of Lightweighting Vehicle Closure Panels

2008-04-14
2008-01-0370
This paper illustrates a methodology in which complete material-manufacturing process cases for closure panels, reinforcements, and assembly are modeled and compared in order to identify the preferred option for a lightweight closure design. First, process-based cost models are used to predict the cost of lightweighting the closure set of a sample midsized sports utility vehicle (SUV) via material and process substitution. Weight savings are then analyzed using a powertrain simulation to understand the impact of lightweighting on fuel economy. The results are evaluated in the context of production volume and total mass change.
Journal Article

A Study of the Friction of Oil Control Rings Using the Floating Liner Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-1048
The oil control ring (OCR) controls the supply of lubricating oil to the top two rings of the piston ring pack and has a significant contribution to friction of the system. This study investigates the two most prevalent types of OCR in the automotive market: the twin land oil control ring (TLOCR) and three piece oil control ring (TPOCR). First, the basis for TLOCR friction on varying liner roughness is established. Then the effect of changing the land width and spring tension on different liner surfaces for the TLOCR is investigated, and distinct trends are identified. A comparison is then done between the TLOCR and TPOCR on different liner surfaces. Results showed the TPOCR displayed different patterns of friction compared the TLOCR in certain cases.
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