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Technical Paper

Prediction of the Knock Limit and Viable Operating Range for a Homogeneous-Charge Compression-Ignition (HCCI) Engine

2003-03-03
2003-01-1092
A method is presented for predicting the viable operating range of homogeneous-charge compression-ignition (HCCI) engines. A fundamental criterion for predicting HCCI knock is described and used to predict the minimum air/fuel ratio (and hence maximum torque) available from the engine. The lean (misfire) limit is computed using a modification of the multi-zone method of Aceves et al. [1]. Numerical improvements are described which allow even very complex fuel chemistry to be rapidly modeled on a standard PC. The viable operating range for an HCCI engine burning a primary reference fuel (PRF 95) is predicted and compared with literature experimental data. The new ability to accurately predict the operating range for any given HCCI engine/fuel combination should considerably simplify the tasks of designing a robust engine and identifying suitable fuels for HCCI.
Technical Paper

Time-Resolved, Speciated Emissions from an SI Engine During Starting and Warm-Up

1996-10-01
961955
A sampling system was developed to measure the evolution of the speciated hydrocarbon emissions from a single-cylinder SI engine in a simulated starting and warm-up procedure. A sequence of exhaust samples was drawn and stored for gas chromatograph analysis. The individual sampling aperture was set at 0.13 s which corresponds to ∼ 1 cycle at 900 rpm. The positions of the apertures (in time) were controlled by a computer and were spaced appropriately to capture the warm-up process. The time resolution was of the order of 1 to 2 cycles (at 900 rpm). Results for four different fuels are reported: n-pentane/iso-octane mixture at volume ratio of 20/80 to study the effect of a light fuel component in the mixture; n-decane/iso-octane mixture at 10/90 to study the effect of a heavy fuel component in the mixture; m-xylene and iso-octane at 25/75 to study the effect of an aromatics in the mixture; and a calibration gasoline.
Technical Paper

Increased Power Density via Variable Compression/Displacement And Turbocharging Using The Alvar-Cycle Engine

1998-02-23
981027
This paper presents the analysis and design of a variable compression-ratio and displacement engine concept - the Alvar Cycle using a four-stroke engine-performance simulation. The Alvar-Cycle engine uses secondary pistons which reciprocate in auxiliary chambers housed in the cylinder head, at adjustable phase-angle differences from the primary pistons. The phase difference provides both the variable total engine displacement and compression ratio. Results indicate that the Alvar engine can operate at higher power density via a combination of higher intake boost and lower compression ratio to avoid knock at high loads, and capture the better thermal efficiency at higher compression ratios at part loads.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Dilution Process for Measurement of Particulate Matter from Spark-Ignition Engines

1998-10-19
982601
Measurements of particulate matter (PM) from spark ignition (SI) engine exhaust using dilution tunnels will become more prevalent as emission standards are tightened. Hence, a study of the dilution process was undertaken in order to understand how various dilution related parameters affect the accuracy with which PM sizes and concentrations can be determined. A SI and a compression ignition (CI) engine were separately used to examine parameters of the dilution process; the present work discusses the results in the context of SI exhaust dilution. A Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) was used to measure the size distribution, number density, and volume fraction of PM. Temperature measurements in the exhaust pipe and dilution tunnel reveal the degree of mixing between exhaust and dilution air, the effect of flowrate on heat transfer from undiluted and diluted exhaust to the environment, and the minimum permissible dilution ratio for a maximum sample temperature of 52°C.
Technical Paper

Extent of Oxidation of Hydrocarbons Desorbing from the Lubricant Oil Layer in Spark-ignition Engines

1996-02-01
960069
The extent of oxidation of hydrocarbons desorbing from the oil layer has been measured directly in a hydrogen-fueled, spark-ignited engine in which the lubricant oil was doped with a single component hydrocarbon. The amount of hydrocarbon desorbed and oxidized could be measured simultaneously as the dopant was only source of carbon-containing species. The fraction oxidized was strongly dependent on engine load, hydrogen fuel-air ratio and dopant chemical reactivity, but only modestly dependent on spark timing and nitrogen dilution levels below 20 percent. Fast FID measurements at the cylinder exit showed that the surviving hydrocarbons emerge late in the exhaust stroke.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Gasoline Absorption into Engine Lubricating Oil

1996-05-01
961229
A method to collect and speciate the components of gasoline absorbed in the lubricant oil using gas chromatography has been developed. Samples were collected continuously from the piston skirt, baffle and sump in a Saturn engine. A long (18 hours) test was performed to determine the build up of hydrocarbons in the sump, and a shorter (25 min) test was performed to determine the build up of hydrocarbons in the piston skirt and baffle during engine warm-up. The first experiment showed that the total hydrocarbon concentration in the sump oil reached a steady state of about 1.35% mass fraction after 11 hours of engine operation. The relative concentration of individual fuel hydrocarbon species absorbed in the oil increases exponentially with boiling point. Most of the identified species in the oil consist of the heavy end aromatics. Similar compositions but lower concentrations were found for samples collected from the piston skirt during engine warm-up.
Technical Paper

Aggregate Vehicle Emission Estimates for Evaluating Control Strategies

1994-03-01
940303
Currently, states that are out of compliance with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards must, according to the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA), develop and implement control strategies that demonstrate specific degrees of reduction in emissions-with the degree of reduction depending upon the severity of the problem. One tool that has been developed to aid regulators in both deciding an appropriate course of action and to demonstrate the desired reductions in mobile emissions is EPA's Mobile 5a emission estimation model. In our study, Mobile 5a has been used to examine the effects of regulatory strategies, as applied to the Northeast United States, on vehicle emissions under worst-case ozone-forming conditions.
Technical Paper

Auto-Oil Program Phase II Heavy Hydrocarbon Study: Analysis of Engine-Out Hydrocarbon Emissions Data

1994-10-01
941966
The engine-out (EO) total and speciated hydrocarbon emissions data from the Auto-Oil Program Phase II Heavy Hydrocarbon Study had been analyzed. The methodology was to first investigate the stabilized EO emissions (Bag 2) of a specific vehicle (Vehicle 04B, a 1989 Model Year Ford Taurus); then the vehicle-to-vehicle differences in Bag2 emissions were considered. Finally, the differences in the Bag2 and the starting/warm-up EO emissions (Bag1) were examined. The speciated emissions may be interpreted as a “feed-through” part due to the unreacted fuel species, and an “offset” part due to the decomposition products. The significant non-fuel emitted species were methane and the olefins. The HC emissions for vehicles with different total emissions were similar in species composition. For both the total and speciated emissions, there was no substantial difference between the Bag1 and Bag2 values for Vehicle 04B.
Technical Paper

Novel Experiment on In-Cylinder Desorption of Fuel from the Oil Layer

1994-10-01
941963
A technique has been developed to measure the desorption and subsequent oxidation of fuel in the oil layer by spiking the oil with liquid fuel and firing the engine on gaseous fuel or motoring with air. Experiments suggest that fuel desorption is not diffusion limited above 50 °C and indicated that approximately two to four percent of the cylinder oil layer is fresh oil from the sump. The increase in hydrocarbon emissions is of the order of 100 ppmC1 per 1% liquid fuel introduced into the fresh oil in a methane fired engine at mid-speed and light load conditions. Calculations indicate that fuel desorbing from oil is much more likely to produce hydrocarbon emissions than fuel emerging from crevices.
Technical Paper

Effect of Engine Operating Parameters on Hydrocarbon Oxidation in the Exhaust Port and Runner of a Spark-Ignited Engine

1995-02-01
950159
The effect of engine operating parameters (speed, spark timing, and fuel-air equivalence ratio [Φ]) on hydrocarbon (HC) oxidation within the cylinder and exhaust system is examined using propane or isooctane fuel. Quench gas (CO2) is introduced at two locations in the exhaust system (exhaust valve or port exit) to stop the oxidation process. Increasing the speed from 1500 to 2500 RPM at MBT spark timing decreases the total, cylinder-exit HC emissions by ∼50% while oxidation in the exhaust system remains at 40% for both fuels. For propane fuel at 1500 rpm, increasing Φ from 0.9 (fuel lean) to 1.1 (fuel rich) reduces oxidation in the exhaust system from 42% to 26%; at 2500 RPM, exhaust system oxidation decreases from 40% to approximately 0% for Φ = 0.9 and 1.1, respectively. Retarded spark increases oxidation in the cylinder and exhaust system for both fuels. Decreases in total HC emissions are accompanied by increased olefinic content and atmospheric reactivity.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Operating Conditions at Idle in the S.I. Engine

1997-10-01
972990
A gasoline engine with an electronically controlled fuel injection system has substantially better fuel economy and lower emissions than a carburetted engine. In general, the stability of engine operation is improved with fuel injector, but the stability of engine operation at idle is not improved compared with a carburetted gasoline engine. In addition, the increase in time that an engine is at idle due to traffic congestion has an effect on the engine stability and vehicle reliability. Therefore, in this research, we will study the influence of fuel injection timing, spark timing, dwell angle, and air-fuel ratio on engine stability at idle.
Technical Paper

Making the Case for a Next Generation Automotive Electrical System

1998-10-19
98C006
Introduction of an array of new electrical and electronic features into future vehicles is generating vehicle electrical power requirements that exceed the capabilities of today's 14 volt electrical systems. In the near term (5 to 10 years), the existing 14V system will be marginally capable of supporting the expected additional loads with escalating costs for the associated charging system. However, significant increases in vehicle functional content are expected as future requirements to meet longer-term (beyond 10 years) needs in the areas of emission control, fuel economy, safety, and passenger comfort. A higher voltage electrical system will be required to meet these future requirements. This paper explores the functional needs that will mandate a higher voltage system and the benefits derivable from its implementation.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Knock in a Spark-Ignition Engine

1989-02-01
890156
Spark-ignition engine knock was characterized in terms of when during the engine cycle and combustion process knock occurred and its magnitude or intensity. Cylinder pressure data from a large number of successive individual cycles were generated from a single-cylinder engine of hemispherical chamber design over a range of operating conditions where knock occurred in some or all of these cycles. Mean values and distributions of following parameters were quantified: knock occurrence crank angle, knock intensity, combustion rate and the end-gas thermodynamic state. These parameters were determined from the cylinder pressure data on an individual cycle basis using a mass-burn-rate analysis. The effects of engine operating variables on these parameters were studied, and correlations between these parameters were examined.
Technical Paper

Chemical Kinetic Modeling of the Oxidation of Unburned Hydrocarbons

1992-10-01
922235
The chemistry of unburned hydrocarbon oxidation in SI engine exhaust was modeled as a function of temperature and concentration of unburned gas for lean and rich mixtures. Detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms were used to model isothermal reactions of unburned fuel/air mixture in an environment of burned gases at atmospheric pressure. Simulations were performed using five pure fuels (methane, ethane, propane, n-butane and toluene) for which chemical kinetic mechanisms and steady state hydrocarbon (HC) emissions data were available. A correlation is seen between reaction rates and HC emissions for different fuels. Calculated relative amounts of intermediate oxidation products are shown to be consistent with experimental measurements.
Technical Paper

Predicting the Effects of Air and Coolant Temperature, Deposits, Spark Timing and Speed on Knock in Spark Ignition Engines

1992-10-01
922324
The prediction of knock onset in spark-ignition engines requires a chemical model for the autoignition of the hydrocarbon fuel-air mixture, and a description of the unburned end-gas thermal state. Previous studies have shown that a reduced chemistry model developed by Keck et al. adequately predicts the initiation of autoignition. However, the combined effects of heat transfer and compression on the state of the end gas have not been thoroughly investigated. The importance of end-gas heat transfer was studied with the objective of improving the ability of our knock model to predict knock onset over a wide range of engine conditions. This was achieved through changing the thermal environment of the end gas by either varying the inlet air temperature or the coolant temperature. Results show that there is significant heating of the in-cylinder charge during intake and a substantial part of the compression process.
Technical Paper

Time Resolved Measurements of Exhaust Composition and Flow Rate in a Wankel Engine

1975-02-01
750024
Measurements were made of exhaust histories of the following species: unburned hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxygen, and nitric oxide (NO). The measurements show that the exhaust flow can be divided into two distinct phases: a leading gas low in HC and high in NO followed by a trailing gas high in HC and low in NO. Calculations of time resolved equivalence ratio throughout the exhaust process show no evidence of a stratified combustion. The exhaust mass flow rate is time resolved by forcing the flow to be locally quasi-steady at an orifice placed in the exhaust pipe. The results with the quasi-steady assumption are shown to be consistent with the measurements. Predictions are made of time resolved mass flow rate which compare favorably to the experimental data base. The composition and flow histories provide sufficient information to calculate the time resolved flow rates of the individual species measured.
Technical Paper

Autoignition of Alcohols and Ethers in a Rapid Compression Machine

1993-10-01
932755
The autoignition characteristics of methanol, ethanol and MTBE (methyl tert-butyl ether) have been investigated in a rapid compression machine at pressures in the range 20-40 atm and temperatures within 750-1000 K. All three oxygenated fuels tested show higher autoignition temperatures than paraffins, a trend consistent with the high octane number of these fuels. The autoignition delay time for methanol was slightly lower than predicted values using reported reaction mechanisms. However, the experimental and measured values for the activation energy are in very good agreement around 44 kcal/mol. The measured activation energy for ethanol autoignition is in good agreement with previous shock tube results (31 kcal/mol), although ignition times predicted by the shock tube correlation are a factor of three lower than the measured values. The measured activation energy for MTBE, 41.4 kcal/mol, was significantly higher than the value previously observed in shock tubes (28.1 kcal/mol).
Technical Paper

Flame Kernel Development in a Methanol Fueled Engine

1993-10-01
932649
The combustion behavior in a modem 4-valve engine using a broad range of methanol/gasoline fuel mixtures was studied. The initial flame development was examined by using a spark plug fiber optics probe. Approximately, the kernel expansion speed, Sg, is relatively unchanged from M0 to M40; jumps by ∼30% from M40 to M60; and then remains roughly constant from M60 to M100. Statistics of the IMEP indicate that at a lean idle condition the combustion rate and robustness correlate with Sg: a higher value of Sg gives better combustion. Thus M60-M100 fuels give better idle combustion behavior than the M0-M40 fuels.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Spark Ignition Engine Warm-Up Process to Predict Component Temperatures and Hydrocarbon Emissions

1991-02-01
910302
In order to understand better the operation of spark-ignition engines during the warm-up period, a computer model had been developed which simulates the thermal processes of the engine. This model is based on lumped thermal capacitance methods for the major engine components, as well as the exhaust system. Coolant and oil flows, and their respective heat transfer rates are modeled, as well as friction heat generation relations. Piston-liner heat transfer is calculated based on a thermal resistance method, which includes the effects of piston and ring material and design, oil film thickness, and piston-liner crevice. Piston/liner crevice changes are calculated based on thermal expansion rates and are used in conjunction with a crevice-region unburned hydrocarbon model to predict the contribution to emissions from this source.
Technical Paper

IGNITION OF FUELS BY RAPID COMPRESSION

1950-01-01
500178
THE autoignition characteristics of several fuels under various conditions of mixture strength, compression ratio, and temperature have been studied by means of a rapid-compression machine. The behaviors of a knock inhibitor, tetraethyl lead, and a knock inducer, ethyl nitrite, have also been studied. Simultaneous records of pressure, volume, and the inflammation have been obtained. These records show the diverse aspects of the autoignition phenomenon and indicate, among other things, according to the authors, that a comparison of the detonating tendencies of fuels must include not only a consideration of the length of the delay period but also an evaluation of the rate of pressure rise during autoignition. Physical interpretations of the data are presented but chemical interpretations have been avoided. The work was exploratory in nature. The authors hope that the results will stimulate activity in this important branch of combustion research.
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