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Technical Paper

Performance and Durability Evaluation of Continuously Regenerating Particulate Filters on Diesel Powered Urban Buses at NY City Transit

2001-03-05
2001-01-0511
Particulate emission from diesel engines is one of the most important pollutants in urban areas. As a result, particulate emission control from urban bus diesel engines using particle filter technology is being evaluated at several locations in the US. A project entitled “Clean Diesel Demonstration Program” has been initiated by NY City Transit under the supervision of NY State DEC and with active participation from several industrial partners. Under this program, several NY City transit buses with DDC Series 50 engines have been equipped with continuously regenerating diesel particulate filter system and are operating with ultra low sulfur diesel (< 30 ppm S) in transit service in Manhattan since February 2000. These buses are being evaluated over a 8-9 month period for operations, maintainability and durability of the particulate filter.
Technical Paper

Diesel Emission Control in Review

2001-03-05
2001-01-0184
This paper gives a comprehensive overview of the current state-of-the-art in diesel emission control. The nature of diesel particulates is summarized. The variety of diesel particulate filter regeneration strategies that will become so important to filter application are reviewed. Filter retrofit and durability issues are addressed. DeNOx catalysts, SCR, NOx traps for diesel, and non-thermal plasma methods are summarized. Integrated NOx/PM systems are described. And reduction of exhaust toxics is discussed. The paper covers all major conferences in the year 2000 that occurred in the US and Europe. US and Europe.
Technical Paper

Validation of a Model and Development of a Simulator for Predicting the Pressure Drop of Diesel Particulate Filters

2001-03-05
2001-01-0911
As demand for wall-flow Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF) increases, accurate predictions of DPF behavior, and in particular their pressure drop, under a wide range of operating conditions bears significant engineering applications. In this work, validation of a model and development of a simulator for predicting the pressure drop of clean and particulate-loaded DPFs are presented. The model, based on a previously developed theory, has been validated extensively in this work. The validation range includes utilizing a large matrix of wall-flow filters varying in their size, cell density and wall thickness, each positioned downstream of light or heavy duty Diesel engines; it also covers a wide range of engine operating conditions such as engine load, flow rate, flow temperature and filter soot loading conditions. The validated model was then incorporated into a DPF pressure drop simulator.
Technical Paper

Inertial Contributions to the Pressure Drop of Diesel Particulate Filters

2001-03-05
2001-01-0909
Wall-flow Diesel particulate filters operating at low filtration velocities usually exhibit a linear dependence between the filter pressure drop and the flow rate, conveniently described by a generalized Darcy's law. It is advantageous to minimize filter pressure drop by sizing filters to operate within this linear range. However in practice, since there often exist serious constraints on the available vehicle underfloor space, a vehicle manufacturer is forced to choose an “undersized” filter resulting in high filtration velocities through the filter walls. Since secondary inertial contributions to the pressure drop become significant, Darcy's law can no longer accurately describe the filter pressure drop. In this paper, a systematic investigation of these secondary inertial flow effects is presented.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Dilution Process for Measurement of Particulate Matter from Spark-Ignition Engines

1998-10-19
982601
Measurements of particulate matter (PM) from spark ignition (SI) engine exhaust using dilution tunnels will become more prevalent as emission standards are tightened. Hence, a study of the dilution process was undertaken in order to understand how various dilution related parameters affect the accuracy with which PM sizes and concentrations can be determined. A SI and a compression ignition (CI) engine were separately used to examine parameters of the dilution process; the present work discusses the results in the context of SI exhaust dilution. A Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) was used to measure the size distribution, number density, and volume fraction of PM. Temperature measurements in the exhaust pipe and dilution tunnel reveal the degree of mixing between exhaust and dilution air, the effect of flowrate on heat transfer from undiluted and diluted exhaust to the environment, and the minimum permissible dilution ratio for a maximum sample temperature of 52°C.
Technical Paper

Advances of Durability of Ceramic Converter Systems

1996-10-01
962372
Governing bodies world-wide are setting increasingly tighter emission standards to help improve air quality. US and Californian LEV/ULEV standards are pace setting, European Stage II legislation has just become effective. In Brazil, the upcoming 1997 standards are also demanding for tighter emission control. The monolithic ceramic honeycomb catalytic converter -for more than the past 20 years- has been a reliable key element in the automotive emission control systems. In order to help meet tightened emission regulation as well to satisfy even more stringent durability requirement, an advanced thinwall ceramic Celcor XT has been developed for increased geometric surface area and reduced backpressure. The product properties as well as FTP and ECE emission and durability test results are being described in this paper. Converter system durability is also determined by robust canning and mounting systems. A durable mounting concept, especially for preconverters, is being described.
Technical Paper

Development of a Diesel Particulate Filter Composition and Its Effect on Thermal Durability and Filtration Performance

1994-03-01
940235
This paper details the development of the EX-80 composition, a new cordierite material for use as a diesel particulate filter (DPF), that was developed based on the following objectives; (1) improved thermal durability, (2) high filtration efficiency and (3) low pressure drop. The achievement of these goals was demonstrated through engine testing, stress modeling, and other evaluations. EX-80 has a low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) averaging less than 4x10-7°C-1 (25°C-800°C), the Modulus of Rupture (MOR) averages greater than 350 psi and the Modulus of Elasticity (MOE) averages less than 0.8 x 106 psi. The improvement of these three properties has resulted in improved thermal durability for EX-80 as compared to the current Corning DPF compositions (EX-47, EX-54 and EX-66). The new cordierite composition has been designed to achieve a low pressure drop as a function of soot loading (0.30 inHg/gm of soot collected), coupled with high efficiency, averaging greater than 90%.
Technical Paper

Effect of Engine Operating Parameters on Hydrocarbon Oxidation in the Exhaust Port and Runner of a Spark-Ignited Engine

1995-02-01
950159
The effect of engine operating parameters (speed, spark timing, and fuel-air equivalence ratio [Φ]) on hydrocarbon (HC) oxidation within the cylinder and exhaust system is examined using propane or isooctane fuel. Quench gas (CO2) is introduced at two locations in the exhaust system (exhaust valve or port exit) to stop the oxidation process. Increasing the speed from 1500 to 2500 RPM at MBT spark timing decreases the total, cylinder-exit HC emissions by ∼50% while oxidation in the exhaust system remains at 40% for both fuels. For propane fuel at 1500 rpm, increasing Φ from 0.9 (fuel lean) to 1.1 (fuel rich) reduces oxidation in the exhaust system from 42% to 26%; at 2500 RPM, exhaust system oxidation decreases from 40% to approximately 0% for Φ = 0.9 and 1.1, respectively. Retarded spark increases oxidation in the cylinder and exhaust system for both fuels. Decreases in total HC emissions are accompanied by increased olefinic content and atmospheric reactivity.
Technical Paper

The Design of Automotive Catalyst Supports for Improved Pressure Drop and Conversion Efficiency

1991-02-01
910371
The current automotive catalytic converter is highly dependable and provides excellent emissions reduction while at the same time it offers little resistance to the flow of gasses through the exhaust system. As automobile performance requirements increase, and as the allowable tailpipe emissions are tightened, there is a need on the one hand to reduce the back pressure even further, and on the other, to increase the already excellent catalytic performance. This paper will analyze the substrate factors which influence the pressure drop and conversion efficiency of the catalyst system. The converter frontal area has the most significant influence on both pressure drop and conversion efficiency, followed in order by part length, cell density, and wall thickness.
Technical Paper

Time Resolved Measurements of Exhaust Composition and Flow Rate in a Wankel Engine

1975-02-01
750024
Measurements were made of exhaust histories of the following species: unburned hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxygen, and nitric oxide (NO). The measurements show that the exhaust flow can be divided into two distinct phases: a leading gas low in HC and high in NO followed by a trailing gas high in HC and low in NO. Calculations of time resolved equivalence ratio throughout the exhaust process show no evidence of a stratified combustion. The exhaust mass flow rate is time resolved by forcing the flow to be locally quasi-steady at an orifice placed in the exhaust pipe. The results with the quasi-steady assumption are shown to be consistent with the measurements. Predictions are made of time resolved mass flow rate which compare favorably to the experimental data base. The composition and flow histories provide sufficient information to calculate the time resolved flow rates of the individual species measured.
Technical Paper

Technique for the Analysis of FTP Emissions

1992-02-01
920724
Previous papers have considered the role of the substrate in the catalyst system. It has been shown that the total catalyzed surface area of the substrate (defined as the substrate geometric surface area multiplied by the substrate volume) can act as a surrogate for the catalyst performance. The substrate affects the back pressure of the exhaust system and therefore, the available power. Relationships have been developed between the substrate physical characteristics, and both the pressure drop and total surface area of the substrate. The substrate pressure drop has also been related to power loss. What has been lacking is a means of quantitatively relating the substrate properties to the conversion efficiency. This paper proposes a simple relationship between the substrate total surface area and the emissions of the vehicle as measured on the FTP cycle.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Spark Ignition Engine Warm-Up Process to Predict Component Temperatures and Hydrocarbon Emissions

1991-02-01
910302
In order to understand better the operation of spark-ignition engines during the warm-up period, a computer model had been developed which simulates the thermal processes of the engine. This model is based on lumped thermal capacitance methods for the major engine components, as well as the exhaust system. Coolant and oil flows, and their respective heat transfer rates are modeled, as well as friction heat generation relations. Piston-liner heat transfer is calculated based on a thermal resistance method, which includes the effects of piston and ring material and design, oil film thickness, and piston-liner crevice. Piston/liner crevice changes are calculated based on thermal expansion rates and are used in conjunction with a crevice-region unburned hydrocarbon model to predict the contribution to emissions from this source.
Technical Paper

Lab Study of Urea Deposit Formation and Chemical Transformation Process of Diesel Aftertreatment System

2017-03-28
2017-01-0915
Diesel exhaust fluid, DEF, (32.5 wt.% urea aqueous solution) is widely used as the NH3 source for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx in diesel aftertreatment systems. The transformation of sprayed liquid phase DEF droplets to gas phase NH3 is a complex physical and chemical process. Briefly, it experiences water vaporization, urea thermolysis/decomposition and hydrolysis. Depending on the DEF doser, decomposition reaction tube (DRT) design and operating conditions, incomplete decomposition of injected urea could lead to solid urea deposit formation in the diesel aftertreatment system. The formed deposits could lead to engine back pressure increase and DeNOx performance deterioration etc. The formed urea deposits could be further transformed to chemically more stable substances upon exposure to hot exhaust gas, therefore it is critical to understand this transformation process.
Technical Paper

Review of Vehicle Engine Efficiency and Emissions

2017-03-28
2017-01-0907
This review paper summarizes major and representative developments in vehicle engine efficiency and emissions regulations and technologies from 2016. The paper starts with the key regulatory developments in the field, including newly proposed European RDE (real driving emissions) particle number regulations, and Euro 6 type regulations for China and India in the 2020 timeframe. China will be tightening 30-40% relative to Euro 6 in 2023. The California heavy duty (HD) low-NOx regulation is advancing and the US EPA is anticipating developing a harmonized proposal for implementation in 2023+. The US also finalized the next round of HD GHG (greenhouse gas) regulations for 2021-27, requiring 5% engine CO2 reductions. LD (light duty) and HD engine technology continues showing marked improvements in engine efficiency. Key developments are summarized for gasoline and diesel engines to meet both the emerging criteria and greenhouse gas regulations.
Technical Paper

LOOP SCAVENGING versus THROUGH SCAVENGING of TWO-STROKE ENGINES

1958-01-01
580044
THIS paper reports the latest investigation of the relative merits of loop scavenging versus through scavenging. The authors hope that the conditions of the work permitted an objective evaluation of the two types of engines. The results of the study may be summarized as follows: 1. With symmetrical timing, neither cylinder shows significant advantage in trapping efficiency. 2. With symmetrical timing, the best ratio of exhaust-port to inlet-port effective area seems to be about 0.6. 3. Unsymmetrical timing is an effective method of improving trapping efficiency. 4. The value of net indicated fuel economy shows no significant difference between the two cylinders. The authors point out that because the areas were equal it is unlikely that the optimum port design of each type was used in comparing the cylinders. If optimum porting had been used, the two types might have shown more difference.
Technical Paper

Time-Resolved Measurements of Hydrocarbon Mass Flowrate in the Exhaust of a Spark-Ignition Engine

1972-02-01
720112
Experimental measurements of the instantaneous exhaust gas temperature, mass flowrate, and hydrocarbon concentration have been made in the exhaust of a single cylinder research engine. The temperature measurements were accomplished using an infrared optical technique and observing the radiation of the exhaust gas at the 4.4 μm band of CO2. Instantaneous exhaust gas mass flowrates were monitored by placing a restriction in the exhaust manifold and measuring the instantaneous pressures across the restriction. Time-resolved hydrocarbon concentrations were measured using a fast-acting sampling valve with an open time of 2 ms. From these measurements, the hydrocarbon mass flowrate is calculated as a function of crank angle.
Technical Paper

High Porosity Substrates for Fast-Light-Off Applications

2015-04-14
2015-01-1009
Regulations that limit emissions of pollutants from gasoline-powered cars and trucks continue to tighten. More than 75% of emissions through an FTP-75 regulatory test are released in the first few seconds after cold-start. A factor that controls the time to catalytic light-off is the heat capacity of the catalytic converter substrate. Historically, substrates with thinner walls and lower heat capacity have been developed to improve cold-start performance. Another approach is to increase porosity of the substrate. A new material and process technology has been developed to significantly raise the porosity of thin wall substrates (2-3 mil) from 27-35% to 55% while maintaining strength. The heat capacity of the material is 30-38% lower than existing substrates. The reduction in substrate heat capacity enables faster thermal response and lower tailpipe emissions. The reliance on costly precious metals in the washcoat is demonstrated to be lessened.
Technical Paper

Modeling Study of Metal Fiber Diesel Particulate Filter Performance

2015-04-14
2015-01-1047
Sintered metal fiber (SMF) diesel particulate filters (DPF) has more than one order of magnitude lower pressure drop compared to a granular or reaction-born DPF of the same (clean) filtration efficiency. To better understand the filtration process and optimize the filter performance, metal fiber filter models are developed in this study. The major previous theoretical models for clean fibrous filter are summarized and compared with experimental data. Furthermore, a metal fiber DPF soot loading model, using similar concept developed in high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter modeling, is built to simulate filter soot loading performance. Compared with experimental results, the soot loading model has relatively good predictions of filter pressure drop and filtration efficiency.
Technical Paper

Scavenging the 2-Stroke Engine

1954-01-01
540258
THE indicated output of a 2-stroke engine is primarily dependent upon the success with which the products of combustion are driven from the cylinder and are replaced by fresh air or mixture during the scavenging period. Such replacement must, of course, be accomplished with a minimum of blower power. This paper deals with various aspects of 2-stroke research conducted at M.I.T. during the past 10 years. Among the subjects discussed are the methods used in the prediction and measurement of scavenging efficiency, and the effect of engine design and operating variables on the scavenging blower requirements as reflected by the scavenging ratio.
Technical Paper

A Model of Quench Layer Entrainment During Blowdown and Exhaust of the Cylinder of an Internal Combustion Engine

1975-02-01
750477
An aerodynamic model of the entrainment of the head wall quench layer during blowdown and exhaust of an internal combustion engine has been developed. The model may be used to calculate the time resolved concentration and mass flowrate of hydrocarbons (HC) in the exhaust, from a knowledge of engine geometry and operating conditions. It predicts that the area As from which HC are swept will be proportional to the cube root of the ratio of the quench layer thickness δq to the thickness of the viscous boundary layer δv. Since the mass of HC emitted is proportional to the product of the HC density ρHC, the area As and the thickness δq, the HC emissions will be proportional to the product ρHC δq4/3 and this is the most important factor determining the emissions.
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