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Technical Paper

Influence of Mixture Stratification Patter non Combustion Characteristics in a Constant-Volume Combustion Chamber

A pancake-type constant-volume combustion chamber was used to investigate the combustion and NOx emission characteristics of propane-air and hydrogen-air mixtures under various charge stratification patterns, which were obtained by variations of the initial charge and injected mixture concentrations and the ignition spark timing. A planar laser-induced fluorescence from nitrogen dioxide as gas fuel tracer was applied to measure the mixture distribution in the test chamber. The second harmonic output of pulsed Nd; YAG laser was used as a light source for fluorescence excitation. The fluorescence images were corrected by a gated image-intensified CCD camera. The quantitative analysis of fuel concentration was made possible by the application of linearity between fluorescence intensity and NO2 concentration at low trace level.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Fuel Distribution, Flow Field, and Combustion Characteristics of a Mixture Injected SI Engine

In order to control the mixture formation, a mixture injected 4-valve SI engine was developed with a small mixture chamber and mechanically driven mixture injection valve installed into the cylinder head. The mixture injection valve was located at the center of the combustion chamber. The mixture was injected from the final stage of the intake stroke to the beginning of the compression stroke. The mixture distribution and in-cylinder flow field inside the combustion chamber were measured by a pair of laser two-dimensional visualization techniques. A planar-laser-induced exciplex fluorescence technique was used to visualize the in-cylinder mixture formation by obtaining spectrally separated fluorescence images of liquid and vapor phase fuel distribution. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) was used to obtain flow field images. In the case of the mixture injected SI engine, the mixture injected into the swirl center was retained during the compression stroke.
Technical Paper

A Study on Improvement of Indicated Thermal Efficiency of ICE Using High Compression Ratio and Reduction of Cooling Loss

Improvement of indicated thermal efficiency of internal combustion engines is required, and increasing the compression ratio is an effective solution. In this study, using a CAE analysis coupling a 0-dimensional combustion analysis and a 1-dimensional heat conduction analysis, the influence of compression ratio on indicated thermal efficiency and combustion was investigated. As a result, it was found that there was an optimal compression ratio that gave the best indicated thermal efficiency, because the increase of cooling loss caused by high compression was bigger than the increase of theoretical indicated thermal efficiency in some cases. Next, the influence of cooling loss reduction on the optimal compression ratio was investigated. It was found that indicated thermal efficiency improved by reducing cooling loss, because the compression ratio which made the best indicated thermal efficiency was shifted to higher compression ratio.