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Technical Paper

Influence of Mixture Stratification Patter non Combustion Characteristics in a Constant-Volume Combustion Chamber

A pancake-type constant-volume combustion chamber was used to investigate the combustion and NOx emission characteristics of propane-air and hydrogen-air mixtures under various charge stratification patterns, which were obtained by variations of the initial charge and injected mixture concentrations and the ignition spark timing. A planar laser-induced fluorescence from nitrogen dioxide as gas fuel tracer was applied to measure the mixture distribution in the test chamber. The second harmonic output of pulsed Nd; YAG laser was used as a light source for fluorescence excitation. The fluorescence images were corrected by a gated image-intensified CCD camera. The quantitative analysis of fuel concentration was made possible by the application of linearity between fluorescence intensity and NO2 concentration at low trace level.
Technical Paper

Development of Lean Burn Catalyst

A new type of three way catalyst for lean engine was developed in order to reduce hydrocarbon (HC), carbon-monoxide (CO) and nitrogen-oxides (NOx) in lean exhaust gas. This catalyst has a base support material of MFI zeolite loaded with active metals including platinum (Pt), iridium (Ir) and rhodium (Rh). It showed good catalytic activity and thermal durability on a lean engine. This catalyst made it possible to enlarge the lean operating region of the lean burn engine. It showed the NOx reduction of 51% in Japanese 10-15 mode emission test and the emissions were found low enough to satisfy the new Japanese emission standards. Consequently, fuel economy of the lean vehicle with this catalyst has been improved about 16% in comparison with a comparable current stoichiometric combustion vehicle. This catalyst has been mass-produced for Mazda 323 lean burn vehicle (Z-Lean) for the Japanese domestic market.
Technical Paper

Detection of Transient Noise of Car Interior Using Non-stationary Signal Analysis

A method to inspect the rattle generated in a vehicle cabin has been developed. In the method, the waveform of overall in-cabin noise is analyzed using Wigner distribution, a kind of time-frequency analysis, and the rattle component of the waveform is condensed and separated from the background shake noise. Then the rattle component is classified into three levels, strong, middle and not detected, using a neural network. Fuzzy inference is also used to select normal waveform data. Experimental results show that the correct classification ratio of the method is more than 90%, which equals the ability of skilled inspectors.
Technical Paper

Computational Study of the Aerodynamic Behavior of a Three-Dimensional Car Configuration

Three-dimensional flows around a car configuration, a Mazda RX-7, were computed by directly integrating the governing unsteady, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. A well-established finite-difference procedure was utilized. The basic equations were formulated in a generalized coordinate system. A third-order upwind scheme was applied to discretize the equations, and the numerical solutions were acquired without using any explicit turbulence models. Elaborate numerical results were presented at a high Reynolds number, Re=106 (based on the body length). In order to investigate the influence of the cross wind, computations were carried out for two yaw angles, i.e., 0 degree and 30 degrees. Extensive flow visualizations, using state-of-the-art computer graphics, were performed; details of the three-dimensional flow structure were examined. Well-controlled wind tunnel experiments were also conducted.
Technical Paper

A Graphical Workstation Based Part-Task Flight Simulator for Preliminary Rapid Evaluation of Advanced Displays

Advances in avionics and display technology are significantly changing the cockpit environment in current transport aircraft. The MIT Aeronautical Systems Lab (ASL) has developed a part-task flight simulator specifically to study the effects of these new technologies on flight crew situational awareness and performance. The simulator is based on a commercially-available graphics workstation, and can be rapidly reconfigured to meet the varying demands of experimental studies. The simulator has been successfully used to evaluate graphical microburst alerting displays, electronic instrument approach plates, terrain awareness and alerting displays, and ATC routing amendment delivery through digital datalinks.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of Aerodynamic Noise Radiated from a Three-Dimensional Wing

In this paper, a prediction method of the aerodynamic sound emitted from the three-dimensional delta wing of the attack angle at 15 degrees is presented. Computed flow Reynolds numbers range from 2.39x1 05 up to 9.56X 105. The method is based on the assumptions: flow Mach number is much less than unity and the strength of sound source equals Curle's dipole. These assumptions are validated by the experimental works performed in a quiet-flow-noise wind tunnel. Owing to the low Mach number condition, the computation region can be devided into two regions: inner flow region and outer wave region. The incompressible flow computation in the inner region is performed based on the full Navier-Stokes equations. The integration of the N-S equations are executed by using finite-difference method. For high Reynolds flow computation, the nonlinear convection terms are discretized by third-order upwind difference scheme.
Technical Paper

Small Scale Research in Automobile Aerodynamics

This paper describes a three component strain gage balance designed to measure aerodynamic forces exerted on small automobile models when subjected to turbulence in an experimental wind tunnel. The instrument is described and the details of obtaining values with it are fully explained. Although tests were conducted on these models at quarter-scale Reynolds number, results agree closely with similar tests on larger models. The balance makes practical some unusual preliminary investigations before developing full-scale prototypes.
Technical Paper

Vibration Measurement in Flight

EQUIPMENT for measuring vibration in airplane structures and powerplants during actual flight is described in this paper. This development is the result of a cooperative research program carried out by the Bureau of Aeronautics of the U. S. Navy and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology with contributions of improvements in design and new features by the Sperry Gyroscope Co., Inc. In its essentials, the M.I.T.-Sperry Apparatus consists of a number of electrical pickup units which operate a central amplifying and recording unit. The recorder is a double-element photographic oscillograph. Each pickup is adapted especially to the type of vibration that it is intended to measure and is made so small that it does not appreciably affect the vibration characteristics of the member to which it is attached rigidly. By using a number of systematically placed pickups, all the necessary vibration information on an airplane can be recorded during a few short flights.
Journal Article

Unsteady Vehicle Aerodynamics during a Dynamic Steering Action: 2nd Report, Numerical Analysis

Unsteady aerodynamic forces acting on vehicles during a dynamic steering action were investigated by numerical simulation, with a special focus on the vehicles' yaw and lateral motions. Two sedan-type vehicles with slightly different geometries at the front pillar, side skirt, under cover, and around the front wheel were adopted for comparison. In the first report, surface pressure on the body and total pressure behind the front wheel were measured in an on-road experiment. Then the relationships between the vehicles' lateral dynamic motion and unsteady aerodynamic characteristics during cornering motions were discussed. In this second report, the vehicles' meandering motions observed in on-road measurements were modeled numerically, and sinusoidal motions of lateral, yaw, and slip angles were imposed. The responding yaw moment was phase averaged, and its phase shift against the imposed slip angle was measured to assess the aerodynamic damping.
Journal Article

CoQ Tradeoffs in Manufacturing Process Improvement and Inspection Strategy Selection: A Case Study of Welded Automotive Assemblies

In today's highly competitive automotive markets manufacturers must provide high quality products to survive. Manufacturers can achieve higher levels of quality by changing or improving their manufacturing process and/or by product inspection where many strategies with different cost implications are often available. Cost of Quality (CoQ) reconciles the competing objectives of quality maximization and cost minimization and serves as a useful framework for comparing available manufacturing process and inspection alternatives. In this paper, an analytic CoQ framework is discussed and some key findings are demonstrated using a set of basic inspection strategy scenarios. A case of a welded automotive assembly is chosen to explore the CoQ tradeoffs in inspection strategy selection and the value of welding process improvement. In the assembly process, many individual components are welded in series and each weld is inspected for quality.
Journal Article

Sensitivity Analysis of Ash Packing and Distribution in Diesel Particulate Filters to Transient Changes in Exhaust Conditions

Current CJ-4 lubricant specifications place chemical limits on diesel engine oil formulations to minimize the accumulation of lubricant-derived ash in diesel particulate filters (DPF). While lubricant additive chemistry plays a strong role in determining the amount and type of ash accumulated in the DPF, a number of additional factors play important roles as well. Relative to soot particles, whose residence time in the DPF is short-lived, ash particles remain in the filter for a significant fraction of the filter's useful life. While it is well-known that the properties (packing density, porosity, permeability) of soot deposits are primarily controlled by the local exhaust conditions at the time of particle deposition in the DPF, the cumulative operating history of the filter plays a much stronger role in controlling the properties and distribution of the accumulated ash.