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Technical Paper

Development of Magnesium Forged Wheel

Magnesium has the lowest specific gravity of all metals used for structural members. The application of magnesium for a road wheel leads to improved vehicle handling and drivability because of the reduction of an unsprung weight. The authors have developed new magnesium alloy which shows excellent mechanical properties and attained a magnesium forged road wheel that is 30% lighter than aluminum wheels.
Technical Paper

Development of Disk Brake Rotor Utilizing Aluminum Metal Matrix Composite

Disk brake rotors require reduced unsprung weight and improved cooling ability for improved fade performance. Automotive brake rotors made from aluminum metal matrix composites (MMC) were evaluated by dynamometer and vehicle tests for the required improvement. The friction and wear performance and the thermal response during fade stops were compared with those of commercially produced gray cast iron (GCI) rotors. It was proved that MMC is a very effective material to replace GCI for brake rotor application, as it reduces unsprung weight and decreases maximum operation temperature of the brake system.
Technical Paper

Effect of Composition, Particle Size, and Heat Treatment on the Mechanical Properties of Al-4.5 wt.% Cu Based Alumina Particulate Reinforced Composites

The quest for higher efficiency and performance of automotive vehicles requires application of materials with high strength, stiffness and lower weight in their construction. Particulate-reinforced aluminum-matrix composites are cost-competitive materials, which can meet these requirements. MMCC, Inc. has been optimizing particulate-reinforced alloy systems and developing the Advanced Pressure Infiltration Casting (APIC™) process for the manufacture of components from these materials. This paper discusses the results of a recent study in which composites reinforced with 55 vol.% alumina were cast using two sizes of alumina particulate and eight different matrix alloys based on Al-4.5 wt.% Cu with varying amounts of silicon and magnesium. Optimum heat treatments for each alloy were determined utilizing microhardness studies. The tensile strength and fracture toughness were evaluated as a function of alloy chemistry, particulate size, and heat treatment.
Technical Paper

Optimal Forming of Aluminum 2008-T4 Conical Cups Using Force Trajectory Control

In this paper we investigate the optimal forming of conical cups of AL 2008-T4 through the use of real-time process control. We consider a flat, frictional binder the force of which can be determined precisely through closed-loop control. Initially the force is held constant throughout the forming of the cup, and various levels of force are tested experimentally and with numerical simulation. Excellent agreement between experiment and simulation is observed. The effects of binder force on cup shape, thickness distribution, failure mode and cup failure height are investigated, and an “optimal” constant binder force is determined. For this optimal case, the corresponding punch force is recorded as a function of punch displacement and is used in subsequent closed-loop control experiments. In addition to the constant force test, a trial variable binder force test was performed to extend the failure height beyond that obtained using the “optimal” constant force level.
Technical Paper

The Driving Simulator with Large Amplitude Motion System

An Advanced driving simulator has been developed at Mazda Yokohama Research Center. The primary use of this simulator is to research future driver-vehicle systems. In an emergency situation, a driver must respond rapidly to perceived motion and visual stimulus to avoid an accident. In such cases, because the time delay associated with the perception of motion cues is shorter than visual and auditory cues, the driver will strongly rely upon perceived motion to control the vehicle. Hence, a driving simulator to be used in the research of driver-vehicle interactions in emergency driving must include a high performance motion system capable of large amplitude lateral motion. The Mazda simulator produces motion cues in four degrees of freedom, provides visual and auditory cues, and generates control feel on the steering wheel. This paper describes the merit of the large amplitude motion system and the features of this newly developed driving simulator.
Technical Paper

Additional Findings on the Multi-Modal Demands of “Voice-Command” Interfaces

This paper presents the results of a study of how people interacted with a production voice-command based interface while driving on public roadways. Tasks included phone contact calling, full address destination entry, and point-of-interest (POI) selection. Baseline driving and driving while engaging in multiple-levels of an auditory-vocal cognitive reference task and manual radio tuning were used as comparison points. Measures included self-reported workload, task performance, physiological arousal, glance behavior, and vehicle control for an analysis sample of 48 participants (gender balanced across ages 21-68). Task analysis and glance measures confirm earlier findings that voice-command interfaces do not always allow the driver to keep their hands on the wheel and eyes on the road, as some assume.
Technical Paper

Comparative Analysis of Automotive Powertrain Choices for the Next 25 Years

This paper assesses the potential improvement of automotive powertrain technologies 25 years into the future. The powertrain types assessed include naturally-aspirated gasoline engines, turbocharged gasoline engines, diesel engines, gasoline-electric hybrids, and various advanced transmissions. Advancements in aerodynamics, vehicle weight reduction and tire rolling friction are also taken into account. The objective of the comparison is the potential of anticipated improvements in these powertrain technologies for reducing petroleum consumption and greenhouse gas emissions at the same level of performance as current vehicles in the U.S.A. The fuel consumption and performance of future vehicles was estimated using a combination of scaling laws and detailed vehicle simulations. The results indicate that there is significant potential for reduction of fuel consumption for all the powertrains examined.
Technical Paper

Axiomatic Design of Automobile Suspension and Steering Systems: Proposal for a Novel Six-Bar Suspension

The existing vehicle designs exhibit a high level of coupling. For instance the coupling in the suspension and steering systems manifests itself through the change in wheel alignment parameters (WAP) due to suspension travel. This change in the WAP causes directional instability and tire-wear. The approach of the industry to solve this problem has been twofold. The first approach has been optimization of suspension link lengths to reduce the change in WAP to zero. Since this is not possible with the existing architecture, the solution used is the optimization of the spring stiffness K to get a compromise solution for comfort (which requires significant suspension travel and hence a soft spring) and directional stability (which demands least possible change in wheel alignment parameters and hence a stiff spring).
Journal Article

A Study on Design Factors of Gas Pedal Operation

Lateral distance from the center of a driver's seating position to the gas and brake pedals is one of the main design factors that relates to the ease of stepping on the pedals from one and the other. It is important to keep a certain distance between the pedals to prevent erroneous operations or to reduce the driver's anxiety. In this paper, we explain that the distance between the pedals is affected by the driver's seating height. In other words, if the driver sits lower, the accuracy of stepping on the pedals from the gas pedal to the brake pedal will increase compared to the higher seating position. In addition, we found out that providing auxiliary parts for the leg support enhances the accuracy of the pedal operations.
Journal Article

Conceptual Modeling of Complex Systems via Object Process Methodology

Knowledge mapping is a first and mandatory step in creation of system architecture. This paper considers the conceptual modeling of automotive systems, and discusses the creation of a knowledge-based model with respect to the Object Process Methodology an approach used in designing intelligent systems by depicting them using object models and process models. With this knowledge, systems engineer should consider what a product is comprised of (its structure), how it operates (its dynamics), and how it interacts with the environment. As systems have become more complex, a prevalent problem in systems development has been the number of accruing errors. A clearly defined and consistent mapping of knowledge regarding structure, operation and interaction is necessary to construct an effective and useful system. An interactive, iterative and consistent method is needed to cope with this complex and circular problem.