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Technical Paper

Inverse Method for Measuring Weld Temperatures during Resistance Spot Welding

2001-03-05
2001-01-0437
A new monitoring system predicts the progression of welding temperature fields during resistance spot welding. The system captures welding voltages and currents to predict contact diameters and simulate temperature fields. The system accurately predicts fusion lines and heat-affected zones. Accuracy holds even for electrode tips used for a few thousand welds of zinc coated steels.
Technical Paper

Economic and Environmental Tradeoffs in New Automotive Painting Technologies

1998-02-23
981164
Painting is the most expensive unit operation in automobile manufacturing and the source of over 90 percent of the air, water and solid waste emissions at the assembly plant. While innovative paint technologies such as waterborne or powder paints can potentially improve plant environmental performance, implementing these technologies often requires major capital investment. A process-based technical cost model was developed for examining the environmental and economic implications of automotive painting at the unit operation level. The tradeoffs between potential environmental benefits and their relative costs are evaluated for current and new technologies.
Technical Paper

A Look at the Automotive-Turbine Regenerator System and Proposals to Improve Performance and Reduce Cost

1997-02-24
970237
The adoption of turbine engines for automotive power plants has been hampered by the high cost, high leakage and high wear rate of present designs of ceramic-matrix regenerators. Proposals are made and analyzed here for design directions to achieve substantial improvements in all three areas. These include lower-cost extruded and pressed matrices; and clamping seals coupled with incremental movement of the rotary-regenerator matrix.
Technical Paper

Cost Awareness in Design: The Role of Data Commonality

1996-02-01
960008
Enhanced information management techniques made available through emerging Information Technology platforms hold a promise of providing significant improvements in both the effectiveness and efficiency of developing complex products. Determining actual management implementations that deliver on this promise has often proven elusive. Work in conjunction with the Lean Aircraft Initiative at MIT has revealed a straight forward use of Information Technology that portends significant cost reductions. By integrating previously separate types of data involved in the process of product development, engineers and designers can make decisions that will significantly reduce ultimate costs. Since the results presented are not specific to particular technologies or manufacturing processes, the conclusions are broadly applicable.
Technical Paper

Predicting Product Manufacturing Costs from Design Attributes: A Complexity Theory Approach

1996-02-01
960003
This paper contains both theorems and correlations based on the idea that there is a uniform metric for measuring the complexity of mechanical parts. The metric proposed is the logarithm of dimension divided by tolerance. The theorems prove that, on the average, for a given manufacturing process, the time to fabricate is simply proportional to this metric. We show corrleations for manual turning (machine lathe process), manual milling (machine milling process), and the lay-up of composite stringers. In each case the accuracy of the time estimate is as good as that of traditional cost estimation methods, but the effort is much less. The coefficient for composite lay-up compares well to that obtained from basic physiological data (Fitts Law).
Technical Paper

3D Vortex Simulation of Intake Flow in a Port-Cylinder with a Valve Seat and a Moving Piston

1996-05-01
961195
A Lagrangian random vortex-boundary element method has been developed for the simulation of unsteady incompressible flow inside three-dimensional domains with time-dependent boundaries, similar to IC engines. The solution method is entirely grid-free in the fluid domain and eliminates the difficult task of volumetric meshing of the complex engine geometry. Furthermore, due to the Lagrangian evaluation of the convective processes, numerical viscosity is virtually removed; thus permitting the direct simulation of flow at high Reynolds numbers. In this paper, a brief description of the numerical methodology is given, followed by an example of induction flow in an off-centered port-cylinder assembly with a harmonically driven piston and a valve seat situated directly below the port. The predicted flow is shown to resemble the flow visualization results of a laboratory experiment, despite the crude approximation used to represent the geometry.
Technical Paper

Development of Capacitance-Loaded Window Antenna for AM/FM Car Radios

1995-02-01
950180
Mazda established an original design methodology combining a capacitive coupling technology and transmission line theory, to develop a high performance window antenna for AM/FM radios which construction is very simple to construct and requires no use of any antenna boosters or matching circuits. This paper introduces the design methodology and performance characteristics of the new antenna as well as its application to the production '95 model Mazda 929.
Technical Paper

Effect of Composition, Particle Size, and Heat Treatment on the Mechanical Properties of Al-4.5 wt.% Cu Based Alumina Particulate Reinforced Composites

1998-02-23
980700
The quest for higher efficiency and performance of automotive vehicles requires application of materials with high strength, stiffness and lower weight in their construction. Particulate-reinforced aluminum-matrix composites are cost-competitive materials, which can meet these requirements. MMCC, Inc. has been optimizing particulate-reinforced alloy systems and developing the Advanced Pressure Infiltration Casting (APIC™) process for the manufacture of components from these materials. This paper discusses the results of a recent study in which composites reinforced with 55 vol.% alumina were cast using two sizes of alumina particulate and eight different matrix alloys based on Al-4.5 wt.% Cu with varying amounts of silicon and magnesium. Optimum heat treatments for each alloy were determined utilizing microhardness studies. The tensile strength and fracture toughness were evaluated as a function of alloy chemistry, particulate size, and heat treatment.
Technical Paper

Application of Vibration Damping Steel Sheet for Autobody Structural Parts

1992-02-01
920249
As a demand for vehicles of higher functionality grows, automakers and material suppliers are devoting increasing efforts to develop technologies for greater safety, lighter weight, higher corrosion resistance, and enhanced quietness. The resin-sandwiched vibration damping steel sheet (VDSS), developed as a highly functional material for reducing vehicle vibration and noise, has been used for oil pans1) and compartment partitions2). First applied for a structural dash panel of the new Mazda 929, a Zn-Ni electroplated VDSS which allows direct electric welding has contributed to greater weight reduction as well as improved quietness.
Technical Paper

Collapse of Thin-Walled Curved Beam with Closed-Hat Section - Part 2: Simulation by Plane Plastic Hinge Model

1990-02-01
900461
This paper describes a calculating method to predict the quasi-static collapsing behaviors of spot-welded closed-hat section curved beams under axial compression. The overall deformat ions and the local buckling modes of beams were calculated using a geometrical model. Force-displacement relations were predicted by a elastic-plastic structural analysis method using the ‘plastic hinge’ concept. Collapsing tests were made on beams which are differenting section size, rotation angle, and metal sheet thickness. Comparisons between the calculated and experimental results of deformed shapes of beams, the local buckling modes and the force displacement relations are discussed.
Technical Paper

Superior Color Matching of Fascia and Body

1987-02-01
870108
To coat flexible parts such as R-RIM Urethane Fascia baked at low temperatures, a different painting approach from one for steel parts is employed. Since paint color differences between the fascia and the body would downgrade the product, a color matching technique is required. For better color matching, matching of color shades was attempted with improvement of paint resin, optimal pigment blending and analysis of how color is affected by varying conditions. Application of a primer for finishing has brought about the desired paint film distinctness. Introduced was also the high weatherablilty paint for plastic parts. All such techniques were utilized on R-RIM Urethane Fascia to achieve high-grade color matching.
Technical Paper

Parametric Analysis of Resistance Spot Welding Lobe Curve

1988-02-01
880278
A linearized lumped parameter heat balance model was developed and is discussed for the general case of resistance welding to see the effects of each parameter on the lobe shape. The parameters include material properties, geometry of electrodes and work piece, weld time and current, and electrical and thermal contact characteristics. These are then related to heat dissipation in the electrodes and the work piece. The results indicate that the ratio of thermal conductivity and heat capacity to electrical resistivity is a characteristic number which is representative of the ease of spot weldability of a given material. The increases in thermal conductivity and heat capacity of the sheet metal increase the lobe width while increases in electrical resistivity decrease the lobe width. Inconsistencies in the weldability of thin sheets and the wider lobe width at long welding times can both be explained by the heat dissipation characteristics.
Technical Paper

Draw Bead Penetration as a Control Element of Material Flow

1993-03-01
930517
Draw beads are widely utilized as a mechanism for providing proper restraining force to a sheet in a forming operation. In this paper, numerical simulations using the nonlinear finite element method are conducted to model the process of drawing a sheet through various draw bead configurations to study the mechanics of draw bead restraint. By examing the sensitivity of the draw bead restraining force due to the change of the draw bead penetration, the work shows that the penetration has the potential to be a very good element for varying and controlling restraining force during the process. A closed-loop feedback control of draw bead penetration using a proportional-integral controller is achieved by the combination of the original finite element simulation and a special element which links penetration to a pre-defined restraining force trajectory.
Technical Paper

A CAD-Driven Flexible Forming System for Three-Dimensional Sheet Metal Parts

1993-03-01
930282
A novel system for the forming of three dimensional sheet metal parts is described that can form a variety of part shapes without the need for fixed tooling, and given only geometry (CAD) information about the desired part. The central elements of this system are a tooling concept based on a programmable discrete die surface and closed-loop shape control. The former give the process the degrees of freedom to change shape rapidly, and the latter is used to insure that the correct shape is formed with a minimum of forming trials. A 540 kN (60 ton) lab press has been constructed with a 0.3 m (12 in) square pair of discrete tools that can be rapidly re-shaped between forming trials. The shape control system uses measured part shapes to determine a shape error and to correct the tooling shape. This correction is based on a unique “Deformation Transfer Function” approach using a spatial frequency decomposition of the surface.
Technical Paper

Optimal Forming of Aluminum 2008-T4 Conical Cups Using Force Trajectory Control

1993-03-01
930286
In this paper we investigate the optimal forming of conical cups of AL 2008-T4 through the use of real-time process control. We consider a flat, frictional binder the force of which can be determined precisely through closed-loop control. Initially the force is held constant throughout the forming of the cup, and various levels of force are tested experimentally and with numerical simulation. Excellent agreement between experiment and simulation is observed. The effects of binder force on cup shape, thickness distribution, failure mode and cup failure height are investigated, and an “optimal” constant binder force is determined. For this optimal case, the corresponding punch force is recorded as a function of punch displacement and is used in subsequent closed-loop control experiments. In addition to the constant force test, a trial variable binder force test was performed to extend the failure height beyond that obtained using the “optimal” constant force level.
Technical Paper

The Corrosion Resistance of Organic Composite-Coated Steel Sheets

1993-10-01
932365
In order to investigate the corrosion resistance of organic composite-coated steel sheets ( OCS ) in a real automotive environment, many kinds of corrosion tests were performed on test pieces and real automotive doors. Tests with a corrosive solution including iron rust were introduced to simulate the real corrosive environment of automotive doors. The relationship between the components of OCS and the corrosion resistance in the rust-including tests was examined. In addition, electrochemical studies were performed. Results indicate OCS has much better corrosion resistance than plated steel sheets with heavier coating weight in all tests. OCS shows excellent corrosion resistance in rust-free corrosive solution, however, some types of OCS do have corrosion concerns in rust-including tests. It became clear that these OCS types have an organic coating with lower cross-linking.
Technical Paper

Development of Simultaneous Zinc Phosphating Process for Aluminum and Steel Plates

1993-11-01
931936
A method was studied for simultaneous zinc phosphating on aluminum and steel surfaces to obtain high corrosion resistance on aluminum surfaces, which conventional phosphatic processing could not provide with sufficient corrosion resistance. Since aluminum is protected by an oxide film on its surface, it has poor processability with zinc phosphating solutions applied to steel. An appropriate quantity of fluoride was therefore added to improve processing, and the coating film, aluminum composition and surface conditions were optimized to suppress filiform corrosion, which is characterized by string-like blisters of paint film starting from a paint defect. In addition, in view of the actual production environment, the corrosion resistance of the ground area made for readjustment after stamping was studied for the optimization of the processing solution.
Technical Paper

Carbonitriding and Hard Shot Peening for High-Strength Gears

1988-02-01
880666
A new process for manufacturing high-strength gears has been developed to meet the requirement of automobile transmission miniaturization. The points of the process are to increase the shot peening intensity and to perform optimal control of the initial (before shot peening) microstructure by heat treatment corresponding with the peening intensity in order to obtain higher residual compressive stress. The new process, named Carbonitriding and Hard Shot Peening in Mazda, brings a much higher fatigue strength than the one obtained by the conventional carburizing and shot peening process.
Technical Paper

Development of Sliding Surface Material for Combustion Chamber of High-Output Rotary Engine

1985-11-11
852176
The present trend of internal combustion engines toward higher-speed and higher-output capacity is pressing the need for improved lubrication of sliding parts in the combustion chamber to secure reliability. To meet this need, investigation into frictional phenomena was made with a rotary engine, which led to the development of a method of coating the inner surface of the rotor housing with fluorocarbon resin superior in self-lubrication and friction resistance. Rotary engines given this surface finishing showed no trace of irregular wear of the sliding surfaces even when subjected, prior to completion of run-in firing (in green condition), to high-speed and high-load tests, indicating this method's noteworthy benefit of improving comformability. This method offers an excellent surface finish for sliding parts of internal combustion engines (rotary and reciprocating) which will gain increasingly higher output in the future.
Technical Paper

Metallurgical and Process Variables Affecting the Resistance Spot Weldability of Galvanized Sheet Steels

1984-02-01
840113
Zinc coating integrity, composition, thickness, roughness, and the presence of Fe-Zn intermetallics are being investigated with regard to the mechanisms of weld nugget formation. This information is being used in conjunction with the optimization of the weld process parameters; such as upsloping, down-sloping, preheating, postheating, and double pulsing, to provide the widest range of acceptable welding conditions. Dynamic inspection monitoring of the welding current, voltage, force, and nugget displacement is being used to follow the progression of nugget formation and to assist in the evaluation of optimum process and material characteristics. It has been found that hot-dipped galvanized materials with coatings which have a very thin Fe-Zn alloy layer, have a wider range of acceptable welding conditions than the commercial galvannealed products, which have a fully alloyed Fe-Zn coating.
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