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Technical Paper

Development of cabin air filter with aldehyde capture function

Aldehydes are the cause of sick house syndrome or chemical sensitivity and have harmful influences for human beings. In the cabin of vehicle, aldehydes which are included in the volatilization gas from the interior materials, DE emission gas in intake air, cigarette smoke and so on spoil the comfortableness. Active carbon, which has been used as an adsorbent, shows an excellent removal efficiency for most of the gas components by physical adsorption. But for aldehydes, it has difficulty because aldehydes are hard to be adsorbed physically. We have developed new aldehydes adsorbent undergoing addition reaction with gaseous aldehydes on its surface. Aldehydes capture material (ACM) make use of the chemical reaction using a resorcin as a reagent and an H-type zeolite as a water-containing support, and active hydrogen is used as a catalyst to promote the reaction. In addition, we have applied ACM to cabin air filter (CAF) of vehicle.
Technical Paper

Prediction of the Knock Limit and Viable Operating Range for a Homogeneous-Charge Compression-Ignition (HCCI) Engine

A method is presented for predicting the viable operating range of homogeneous-charge compression-ignition (HCCI) engines. A fundamental criterion for predicting HCCI knock is described and used to predict the minimum air/fuel ratio (and hence maximum torque) available from the engine. The lean (misfire) limit is computed using a modification of the multi-zone method of Aceves et al. [1]. Numerical improvements are described which allow even very complex fuel chemistry to be rapidly modeled on a standard PC. The viable operating range for an HCCI engine burning a primary reference fuel (PRF 95) is predicted and compared with literature experimental data. The new ability to accurately predict the operating range for any given HCCI engine/fuel combination should considerably simplify the tasks of designing a robust engine and identifying suitable fuels for HCCI.
Technical Paper

Time-Resolved, Speciated Emissions from an SI Engine During Starting and Warm-Up

A sampling system was developed to measure the evolution of the speciated hydrocarbon emissions from a single-cylinder SI engine in a simulated starting and warm-up procedure. A sequence of exhaust samples was drawn and stored for gas chromatograph analysis. The individual sampling aperture was set at 0.13 s which corresponds to ∼ 1 cycle at 900 rpm. The positions of the apertures (in time) were controlled by a computer and were spaced appropriately to capture the warm-up process. The time resolution was of the order of 1 to 2 cycles (at 900 rpm). Results for four different fuels are reported: n-pentane/iso-octane mixture at volume ratio of 20/80 to study the effect of a light fuel component in the mixture; n-decane/iso-octane mixture at 10/90 to study the effect of a heavy fuel component in the mixture; m-xylene and iso-octane at 25/75 to study the effect of an aromatics in the mixture; and a calibration gasoline.
Technical Paper

Increased Power Density via Variable Compression/Displacement And Turbocharging Using The Alvar-Cycle Engine

This paper presents the analysis and design of a variable compression-ratio and displacement engine concept - the Alvar Cycle using a four-stroke engine-performance simulation. The Alvar-Cycle engine uses secondary pistons which reciprocate in auxiliary chambers housed in the cylinder head, at adjustable phase-angle differences from the primary pistons. The phase difference provides both the variable total engine displacement and compression ratio. Results indicate that the Alvar engine can operate at higher power density via a combination of higher intake boost and lower compression ratio to avoid knock at high loads, and capture the better thermal efficiency at higher compression ratios at part loads.
Technical Paper

Development of V6 Miller Cycle Gasoline Engine

A gasoline engine with an entirely new combustion cycle deriving from Miller Cycle is developed. By delaying closing timing of intake valve and with new Lysholm Compressor which provides higher boost pressure, engine knocking is avoided while high compression ratio is maintained and approximately 1.5 times larger toque than that of a naturally aspirated(NA) engine of the same displacement is realized. This V6 Miller Cycle gasoline engine can be the alternative to a larger displacement NA engine because of its equivalent torque performance and its lower fuel consumption by the effect of smaller displacement.
Technical Paper

Mechanism of Improving Fuel Efficiency by Miller Cycle and Its Future Prospect

We have introduced a supercharged Miller Cycle gasoline engine into the market in 1993 as an answer to the requirement of reduction in CO2 emission of vehicles. Improvement in the fuel economy of a supercharged Miller Cycle engine is achieved by the reduction of friction loss due to a smaller displacement. The biggest problem of a conventional supercharged engine is knocking. In order to avoid the knocking, lower compression ratio, which accompanies lower expansion ratio, has been adopted by the conventonal engines and achieved insufficient fuel economy improvement. The Miller Cycle obtains superior anti-knocking performance as well as lowering compression ratio, while keeping the high expansion ratio. The decreased friction loss by the smaller displacement has completely lead to the improvement of fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Improving NOx and Fuel Economy for Mixture Injected SI Engine with EGR

A large quantity of recirculated exhaust gas is used to reduce NOx emissions and improve fuel economy at the same time. The effect of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) was investigated under the stoichiometric and lean operating conditions and compared with the effect of lean operation without EGR. A mixture injected SI engine that has a mechanically driven mixture injection valve installed was prepared. In this engine, it is possible to charge combustible mixture independently from combustion air and recirculated exhaust gas introduced from intake port in order to stratify the mixture. The effect of the EGR ratio on NOx emissions and fuel consumption was measured under the stoichiometric and lean operating conditions. Due to the mixture distribution controlled by the mixture injection, a large quantity of recirculated exhaust gas could be introduced into the combustion chamber under the stoichiometric air/fuel ratio. The limit of EGR ratio was 48 %.
Technical Paper

Development of the Stratified Charge and Stable Combustion Method in DI Gasoline Engines

The new combustion method in DISC engine has been developed. It has a double structure combustion chamber characterized as ‘Caldera’. The chamber is constructed by a center cavity for the purpose of forming a stable mixture around a spark plug electrode, and by an outer cavity which has a role of a main chamber. This method makes possible a perfect un-throttling operation, and a fuel consumption equal to a diesel engine is achieved. With regard to an out-put of DISC engine, a stoichmetric combustion and a high torque are achieved by controling a fuel injection timing with an electro-magnetic injection system device. With regard to emission regulations, a heavy EGR include residual gas decreases greatly NOx and HC emissions simultaneously, and which suggests a possibility to achieve LEV/ULEV regulations.
Technical Paper

Development of Lean Burn Catalyst

A new type of three way catalyst for lean engine was developed in order to reduce hydrocarbon (HC), carbon-monoxide (CO) and nitrogen-oxides (NOx) in lean exhaust gas. This catalyst has a base support material of MFI zeolite loaded with active metals including platinum (Pt), iridium (Ir) and rhodium (Rh). It showed good catalytic activity and thermal durability on a lean engine. This catalyst made it possible to enlarge the lean operating region of the lean burn engine. It showed the NOx reduction of 51% in Japanese 10-15 mode emission test and the emissions were found low enough to satisfy the new Japanese emission standards. Consequently, fuel economy of the lean vehicle with this catalyst has been improved about 16% in comparison with a comparable current stoichiometric combustion vehicle. This catalyst has been mass-produced for Mazda 323 lean burn vehicle (Z-Lean) for the Japanese domestic market.
Technical Paper

Mechanism of Combustion Chamber Deposit Interference and Effects of Gasoline Additives on CCD Formation

Recently, an audible clattering noise has been noticed in some vehicles during cold engine starts, mainly in the U.S. The clattering is referred to by various names, such as “carbon knock,” “carbon rap,” “mechanical knock” and “combustion chamber deposit interference (CCDI).” CCDI is believed to be caused by the deposit formation in the combustion chamber. In the research effort described here, CCDI was successfully reproduced in a 2.5-liter multipoint injection engine with a polyolefin amine gasoline additive. It was determined that the CCDI was caused by mechanical contact between the piston top and the cylinder head deposits. The vibration due to CCDI originated mainly at the thrust side of the piston right after top-dead-center on compression stroke and was characterized by a high frequency response. Combustion chamber deposit (CCD) formation depends on many factors, including gasoline additives.
Technical Paper

Extent of Oxidation of Hydrocarbons Desorbing from the Lubricant Oil Layer in Spark-ignition Engines

The extent of oxidation of hydrocarbons desorbing from the oil layer has been measured directly in a hydrogen-fueled, spark-ignited engine in which the lubricant oil was doped with a single component hydrocarbon. The amount of hydrocarbon desorbed and oxidized could be measured simultaneously as the dopant was only source of carbon-containing species. The fraction oxidized was strongly dependent on engine load, hydrogen fuel-air ratio and dopant chemical reactivity, but only modestly dependent on spark timing and nitrogen dilution levels below 20 percent. Fast FID measurements at the cylinder exit showed that the surviving hydrocarbons emerge late in the exhaust stroke.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Gasoline Absorption into Engine Lubricating Oil

A method to collect and speciate the components of gasoline absorbed in the lubricant oil using gas chromatography has been developed. Samples were collected continuously from the piston skirt, baffle and sump in a Saturn engine. A long (18 hours) test was performed to determine the build up of hydrocarbons in the sump, and a shorter (25 min) test was performed to determine the build up of hydrocarbons in the piston skirt and baffle during engine warm-up. The first experiment showed that the total hydrocarbon concentration in the sump oil reached a steady state of about 1.35% mass fraction after 11 hours of engine operation. The relative concentration of individual fuel hydrocarbon species absorbed in the oil increases exponentially with boiling point. Most of the identified species in the oil consist of the heavy end aromatics. Similar compositions but lower concentrations were found for samples collected from the piston skirt during engine warm-up.
Technical Paper

Aggregate Vehicle Emission Estimates for Evaluating Control Strategies

Currently, states that are out of compliance with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards must, according to the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA), develop and implement control strategies that demonstrate specific degrees of reduction in emissions-with the degree of reduction depending upon the severity of the problem. One tool that has been developed to aid regulators in both deciding an appropriate course of action and to demonstrate the desired reductions in mobile emissions is EPA's Mobile 5a emission estimation model. In our study, Mobile 5a has been used to examine the effects of regulatory strategies, as applied to the Northeast United States, on vehicle emissions under worst-case ozone-forming conditions.
Technical Paper

The Characteristics of Fuel Consumption and Exhaust Emissions of the Side Exhaust Port Rotary Engine

Mazda has been pursuing the research of side exhaust porting for its rotary engine in an effort to improve the engine's fuel efficiency and exhaust emissions characteristics. The side exhaust porting configuration provides greater flexibility in setting port timing and shape, as compared to the peripheral exhaust porting configuration, which is in use in the current-generation rotary engines; the side exhaust porting configuration enables the selection of a port timing more favorable to reduced fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. The side exhaust port rotary engine used in this research has its exhaust port closure timing around the top dead center (TDC) and has no intake-exhaust timing overlap. As a result, burnt gasses entering the next cycle of combustion are reduced, thus enhancing combustion stability; also, the air-fuel ratio can be set leaner for improved fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Auto-Oil Program Phase II Heavy Hydrocarbon Study: Analysis of Engine-Out Hydrocarbon Emissions Data

The engine-out (EO) total and speciated hydrocarbon emissions data from the Auto-Oil Program Phase II Heavy Hydrocarbon Study had been analyzed. The methodology was to first investigate the stabilized EO emissions (Bag 2) of a specific vehicle (Vehicle 04B, a 1989 Model Year Ford Taurus); then the vehicle-to-vehicle differences in Bag2 emissions were considered. Finally, the differences in the Bag2 and the starting/warm-up EO emissions (Bag1) were examined. The speciated emissions may be interpreted as a “feed-through” part due to the unreacted fuel species, and an “offset” part due to the decomposition products. The significant non-fuel emitted species were methane and the olefins. The HC emissions for vehicles with different total emissions were similar in species composition. For both the total and speciated emissions, there was no substantial difference between the Bag1 and Bag2 values for Vehicle 04B.
Technical Paper

Novel Experiment on In-Cylinder Desorption of Fuel from the Oil Layer

A technique has been developed to measure the desorption and subsequent oxidation of fuel in the oil layer by spiking the oil with liquid fuel and firing the engine on gaseous fuel or motoring with air. Experiments suggest that fuel desorption is not diffusion limited above 50 °C and indicated that approximately two to four percent of the cylinder oil layer is fresh oil from the sump. The increase in hydrocarbon emissions is of the order of 100 ppmC1 per 1% liquid fuel introduced into the fresh oil in a methane fired engine at mid-speed and light load conditions. Calculations indicate that fuel desorbing from oil is much more likely to produce hydrocarbon emissions than fuel emerging from crevices.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Operating Conditions at Idle in the S.I. Engine

A gasoline engine with an electronically controlled fuel injection system has substantially better fuel economy and lower emissions than a carburetted engine. In general, the stability of engine operation is improved with fuel injector, but the stability of engine operation at idle is not improved compared with a carburetted gasoline engine. In addition, the increase in time that an engine is at idle due to traffic congestion has an effect on the engine stability and vehicle reliability. Therefore, in this research, we will study the influence of fuel injection timing, spark timing, dwell angle, and air-fuel ratio on engine stability at idle.
Technical Paper

Making the Case for a Next Generation Automotive Electrical System

Introduction of an array of new electrical and electronic features into future vehicles is generating vehicle electrical power requirements that exceed the capabilities of today's 14 volt electrical systems. In the near term (5 to 10 years), the existing 14V system will be marginally capable of supporting the expected additional loads with escalating costs for the associated charging system. However, significant increases in vehicle functional content are expected as future requirements to meet longer-term (beyond 10 years) needs in the areas of emission control, fuel economy, safety, and passenger comfort. A higher voltage electrical system will be required to meet these future requirements. This paper explores the functional needs that will mandate a higher voltage system and the benefits derivable from its implementation.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Knock in a Spark-Ignition Engine

Spark-ignition engine knock was characterized in terms of when during the engine cycle and combustion process knock occurred and its magnitude or intensity. Cylinder pressure data from a large number of successive individual cycles were generated from a single-cylinder engine of hemispherical chamber design over a range of operating conditions where knock occurred in some or all of these cycles. Mean values and distributions of following parameters were quantified: knock occurrence crank angle, knock intensity, combustion rate and the end-gas thermodynamic state. These parameters were determined from the cylinder pressure data on an individual cycle basis using a mass-burn-rate analysis. The effects of engine operating variables on these parameters were studied, and correlations between these parameters were examined.
Technical Paper

Development of Plastic Fuel Tank Using Modified Multi-Layer Blow Molding

A new and very practical technology has been developed to prevent gasoline permeation in plastic fuel tanks. The main body of the new tank is multi-layered, consist of high density polyethylene (HDPE), adhesive resin, polyamide (PA). The top and bottom parts of the tank are single layer consist of HDPE. This method has many advantages including such features as excellent gasoline permeation prevention, the processing time is the same as that for conventional blow molding methods, the method is safe because no toxic substances are used in the treatment process, the cost-performance ratio is excellent due to the minimum use of expensive auxiliaries (PA, adhesive resin), and the top and bottom single layer flashes can be re-used if they are pulverized.