Refine Your Search

Search Results

Technical Paper

Prediction of the Knock Limit and Viable Operating Range for a Homogeneous-Charge Compression-Ignition (HCCI) Engine

2003-03-03
2003-01-1092
A method is presented for predicting the viable operating range of homogeneous-charge compression-ignition (HCCI) engines. A fundamental criterion for predicting HCCI knock is described and used to predict the minimum air/fuel ratio (and hence maximum torque) available from the engine. The lean (misfire) limit is computed using a modification of the multi-zone method of Aceves et al. [1]. Numerical improvements are described which allow even very complex fuel chemistry to be rapidly modeled on a standard PC. The viable operating range for an HCCI engine burning a primary reference fuel (PRF 95) is predicted and compared with literature experimental data. The new ability to accurately predict the operating range for any given HCCI engine/fuel combination should considerably simplify the tasks of designing a robust engine and identifying suitable fuels for HCCI.
Technical Paper

Increased Power Density via Variable Compression/Displacement And Turbocharging Using The Alvar-Cycle Engine

1998-02-23
981027
This paper presents the analysis and design of a variable compression-ratio and displacement engine concept - the Alvar Cycle using a four-stroke engine-performance simulation. The Alvar-Cycle engine uses secondary pistons which reciprocate in auxiliary chambers housed in the cylinder head, at adjustable phase-angle differences from the primary pistons. The phase difference provides both the variable total engine displacement and compression ratio. Results indicate that the Alvar engine can operate at higher power density via a combination of higher intake boost and lower compression ratio to avoid knock at high loads, and capture the better thermal efficiency at higher compression ratios at part loads.
Technical Paper

Development of V6 Miller Cycle Gasoline Engine

1994-03-01
940198
A gasoline engine with an entirely new combustion cycle deriving from Miller Cycle is developed. By delaying closing timing of intake valve and with new Lysholm Compressor which provides higher boost pressure, engine knocking is avoided while high compression ratio is maintained and approximately 1.5 times larger toque than that of a naturally aspirated(NA) engine of the same displacement is realized. This V6 Miller Cycle gasoline engine can be the alternative to a larger displacement NA engine because of its equivalent torque performance and its lower fuel consumption by the effect of smaller displacement.
Technical Paper

Mechanism of Improving Fuel Efficiency by Miller Cycle and Its Future Prospect

1995-02-01
950974
We have introduced a supercharged Miller Cycle gasoline engine into the market in 1993 as an answer to the requirement of reduction in CO2 emission of vehicles. Improvement in the fuel economy of a supercharged Miller Cycle engine is achieved by the reduction of friction loss due to a smaller displacement. The biggest problem of a conventional supercharged engine is knocking. In order to avoid the knocking, lower compression ratio, which accompanies lower expansion ratio, has been adopted by the conventonal engines and achieved insufficient fuel economy improvement. The Miller Cycle obtains superior anti-knocking performance as well as lowering compression ratio, while keeping the high expansion ratio. The decreased friction loss by the smaller displacement has completely lead to the improvement of fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Mechanism of Combustion Chamber Deposit Interference and Effects of Gasoline Additives on CCD Formation

1995-02-01
950741
Recently, an audible clattering noise has been noticed in some vehicles during cold engine starts, mainly in the U.S. The clattering is referred to by various names, such as “carbon knock,” “carbon rap,” “mechanical knock” and “combustion chamber deposit interference (CCDI).” CCDI is believed to be caused by the deposit formation in the combustion chamber. In the research effort described here, CCDI was successfully reproduced in a 2.5-liter multipoint injection engine with a polyolefin amine gasoline additive. It was determined that the CCDI was caused by mechanical contact between the piston top and the cylinder head deposits. The vibration due to CCDI originated mainly at the thrust side of the piston right after top-dead-center on compression stroke and was characterized by a high frequency response. Combustion chamber deposit (CCD) formation depends on many factors, including gasoline additives.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Knock in a Spark-Ignition Engine

1989-02-01
890156
Spark-ignition engine knock was characterized in terms of when during the engine cycle and combustion process knock occurred and its magnitude or intensity. Cylinder pressure data from a large number of successive individual cycles were generated from a single-cylinder engine of hemispherical chamber design over a range of operating conditions where knock occurred in some or all of these cycles. Mean values and distributions of following parameters were quantified: knock occurrence crank angle, knock intensity, combustion rate and the end-gas thermodynamic state. These parameters were determined from the cylinder pressure data on an individual cycle basis using a mass-burn-rate analysis. The effects of engine operating variables on these parameters were studied, and correlations between these parameters were examined.
Technical Paper

Predicting the Effects of Air and Coolant Temperature, Deposits, Spark Timing and Speed on Knock in Spark Ignition Engines

1992-10-01
922324
The prediction of knock onset in spark-ignition engines requires a chemical model for the autoignition of the hydrocarbon fuel-air mixture, and a description of the unburned end-gas thermal state. Previous studies have shown that a reduced chemistry model developed by Keck et al. adequately predicts the initiation of autoignition. However, the combined effects of heat transfer and compression on the state of the end gas have not been thoroughly investigated. The importance of end-gas heat transfer was studied with the objective of improving the ability of our knock model to predict knock onset over a wide range of engine conditions. This was achieved through changing the thermal environment of the end gas by either varying the inlet air temperature or the coolant temperature. Results show that there is significant heating of the in-cylinder charge during intake and a substantial part of the compression process.
Technical Paper

Autoignition of Alcohols and Ethers in a Rapid Compression Machine

1993-10-01
932755
The autoignition characteristics of methanol, ethanol and MTBE (methyl tert-butyl ether) have been investigated in a rapid compression machine at pressures in the range 20-40 atm and temperatures within 750-1000 K. All three oxygenated fuels tested show higher autoignition temperatures than paraffins, a trend consistent with the high octane number of these fuels. The autoignition delay time for methanol was slightly lower than predicted values using reported reaction mechanisms. However, the experimental and measured values for the activation energy are in very good agreement around 44 kcal/mol. The measured activation energy for ethanol autoignition is in good agreement with previous shock tube results (31 kcal/mol), although ignition times predicted by the shock tube correlation are a factor of three lower than the measured values. The measured activation energy for MTBE, 41.4 kcal/mol, was significantly higher than the value previously observed in shock tubes (28.1 kcal/mol).
Technical Paper

Combustion Characteristics in Hydrogen Fueled Rotary Engine

1992-02-01
920302
A hydrogen-fueled rotary engine was investigated with respect to the effects of the fuel supply method, spark plug rating and spark plug cavity volume on abnormal combustion. It was found that abnormal combustion was caused by pre-ignition from the spark plugs and gas leakage through the plug hole cavity. The hydrogen-fueled rotary engine could function through a wide operating range at a theoretical air-to-fuel ratio by optimising the above factors. Consequently, the hydrogen-fueled rotary engine achieved output power of up to 63%-75% of the gasoline specification, while the hydrogen-fueled reciprocating engine only reached 50%.
Technical Paper

IGNITION OF FUELS BY RAPID COMPRESSION

1950-01-01
500178
THE autoignition characteristics of several fuels under various conditions of mixture strength, compression ratio, and temperature have been studied by means of a rapid-compression machine. The behaviors of a knock inhibitor, tetraethyl lead, and a knock inducer, ethyl nitrite, have also been studied. Simultaneous records of pressure, volume, and the inflammation have been obtained. These records show the diverse aspects of the autoignition phenomenon and indicate, among other things, according to the authors, that a comparison of the detonating tendencies of fuels must include not only a consideration of the length of the delay period but also an evaluation of the rate of pressure rise during autoignition. Physical interpretations of the data are presented but chemical interpretations have been avoided. The work was exploratory in nature. The authors hope that the results will stimulate activity in this important branch of combustion research.
Technical Paper

Performance Assessment of Extended Stroke Spark Ignition Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0893
The performance of an extended stroke spark ignition engine has been assessed by cycle simulation. The base engine is a modern turbo-charged 4-stroke passenger car spark-ignition engine with 10:1 compression ratio. A complex crank mechanism is used so that the intake stroke remains the same while the expansion-to-intake stroke ratio (SR) is varied by changing the crank geometry. The study is limited to the thermodynamic aspect of the extended stroke; the changes in friction, combustion characteristic, and other factors are not included. When the combustion is not knock limited, an efficiency gain of more than 10 percent is obtained for SR = 1.5. At low load, however, there is an efficiency lost due to over-expansion. At the same NIMEP, the extended stroke renders the engine more resistant to knock. At SR of 1.8, the engine is free from knock up to 14 bar NIMEP at 2000 rpm. Under knocking condition, the required spark retard to prevent knocking is less with the extended stroke.
Technical Paper

Dual-Fuel Gasoline-Alcohol Engines for Heavy Duty Trucks: Lower Emissions, Flexible-Fuel Alternative to Diesel Engines

2018-04-03
2018-01-0888
Long-haul and other heavy-duty trucks, presently almost entirely powered by diesel fuel, face challenges meeting worldwide needs for greatly reducing nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. Dual-fuel gasoline-alcohol engines could potentially provide a means to cost-effectively meet this need at large scale in the relatively near term. They could also provide reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. These spark ignition (SI) flexible fuel engines can provide operation over a wide fuel range from mainly gasoline use to 100% alcohol use. The alcohol can be ethanol or methanol. Use of stoichiometric operation and a three-way catalytic converter can reduce NOx by around 90% relative to emissions from diesel engines with state of the art exhaust treatment.
Technical Paper

Real World Performance of an Onboard Gasoline/Ethanol Separation System to Enable Knock Suppression Using an Octane-On-Demand Fuel System

2018-04-03
2018-01-0879
Higher compression ratio and turbocharging, with engine downsizing can enable significant gains in fuel economy but require engine operating conditions that cause engine knock under high load. Engine knock can be avoided by supplying higher-octane fuel under such high load conditions. This study builds on previous MIT papers investigating Octane-On-Demand (OOD) to enable a higher efficiency, higher-boost higher compression-ratio engine. The high-octane fuel for OOD can be obtained through On-Board-Separation (OBS) of alcohol blended gasoline. Fuel from the primary fuel tank filled with commercially available gasoline that contains 10% by volume ethanol (E10) is separated by an organic membrane pervaporation process that produces a 30 to 90% ethanol fuel blend for use when high octane is needed. In addition to previous work, this paper combines modeling of the OBS system with passenger car and medium-duty truck fuel consumption and octane requirements for various driving cycles.
Technical Paper

Knock in Spark Ignition Engines

1981-02-01
810147
The knocking characteristics of several fuels are studied using a single cylinder test engine with variations in key engine operating parameters. Compression ratio, spark advance, fuel equivalence ratio, exhaust gas recirculation, engine speed, charge inlet pressure and charge inlet temperature were varied to yield a range of engine cylinder pressure-temperature histories as the base for this study. The fuels studied include three reference fuels containing isooctane and heptane with isooctane volume percents of 80, 90 and 100. Two wide boiling range gasolines were also studied. A number of empirical relationships for autoignition times of isooctane and heptane blends are employed in conjunction with the experimentally obtained pressure-temperature histories to predict onset of knock. The accuracies of the predictions with respect to the experimentally determined knock points are discussed.
Technical Paper

The Anatomy of Knock

2016-04-05
2016-01-0704
The combustion process after auto-ignition is investigated. Depending on the non-uniformity of the end gas, auto-ignition could initiate a flame, produce pressure waves that excite the engine structure (acoustic knock), or result in detonation (normal or developing). For the “acoustic knock” mode, a knock intensity (KI) is defined as the pressure oscillation amplitude. The KI values over different cycles under a fixed operating condition are observed to have a log-normal distribution. When the operating condition is changed (over different values of λ, EGR, and spark timing), the mean (μ) of log (KI/GIMEP) decreases linearly with the correlation-based ignition delay calculated using the knock-point end gas condition of the mean cycle. The standard deviation σ of log(KI/GIMEP) is approximately a constant, at 0.63. The values of μ and σ thus allow a statistical description of knock from the deterministic calculation of the ignition delay using the mean cycle properties
Technical Paper

Phenomena that Determine Knock Onset in Spark-Ignition Engines

2007-01-23
2007-01-0007
Experiments were carried out to collect in-cylinder pressure data and microphone signals from a single-cylinder test engine using spark timingsbefore, at, and after knock onset for toluene reference fuels. The objective was to gain insight into the phenomena that determine knock onset, detected by an external microphone. In particular, the study examines how the end-gas autoignition process changes as the engine's spark timing is advanced through the borderline knock limit into the engine's knocking regime. Fast Fourier transforms (FFT) and bandpass filtering techniques were used to process the recorded cylinder pressure data to determine knock intensities for each cycle. Two characteristic pressure oscillation frequencies were detected: a peak just above 6 kHz and a range of peaks in the 15-22 kHz range. The microphone data shows that the audible knock signal has the same 6 kHz peak.
Journal Article

Combustion Technology Development for a High Compression Ratio SI Engine

2011-08-30
2011-01-1871
Internal combustion engines still play a vital role in realizing the low carbon society. For spark ignition engines, further improvement in thermal efficiency can be achieved by increasing both compression and specific heat ratios. In the current work, the authors developed practical technologies to prevent output power loss due to knocking at full load, which is a critical issue for increasing compression ratio. These new technologies allowed to increase the compression ratio significantly and provide an equivalent torque level as a conventional engine. As a result, thermal efficiency has been improved at partial load.
Journal Article

EGR Effects on Boosted SI Engine Operation and Knock Integral Correlation

2012-04-16
2012-01-0707
The effects of cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on a boosted direct-injection (DI) spark ignition (SI) engine operating at stoichiometric equivalence ratio, gross indicated mean effective pressure of 14-18 bar, and speed of 1500-2500 rpm, are studied under constant fuel condition at each operating point. In the presence of EGR, burn durations are longer and combustion is more retard. At the same combustion phasing, the indicated specific fuel consumption improves because of a decrease in heat loss and an increase in the specific heat ratio. The knock limited spark advance increases substantially with EGR. This increase is due partly to a slower combustion which is equivalent to a spark retard, as manifested by a retarded value of the 50% burn point (CA50), and due partly to a slower ignition chemistry of the diluted charge, as manifested by the knock limited spark advance to beyond the value offered by the retarded CA50.
Journal Article

Diesel Combustion Noise Reduction by Controlling Piston Vibration

2015-04-14
2015-01-1667
It has been required recently that diesel engines for passenger cars meet various requirements, such as low noise, low fuel consumption, low emissions and high power. The key to improve the noise is to reduce a combustion noise known as “Diesel knock noise”. Conventional approaches to reduce the diesel knock are decreasing combustion excitation force due to pilot/pre fuel injection, adding ribs to engine blocks or improving noise transfer characteristics by using insulation covers. However, these approaches have negative effects, such as deterioration in fuel economy and increase in cost/weight. Therefore, modification of engine structures is required to reduce it. We analyzed noise transfer paths from a piston, a connecting rod, a crank shaft to an engine block and vibration behavior during engine operation experimentally, and identified that piston resonance was a noise source.
Journal Article

Effects of Ethanol Content on Gasohol PFI Engine Wide-Open-Throttle Operation

2009-06-15
2009-01-1907
The NOx emission and knock characteristics of a PFI engine operating on ethanol/gasoline mixtures were assessed at 1500 and 2000 rpm with λ =1 under Wide-Open-Throttle condition. There was no significant charge cooling due to fuel evaporation. The decrease in NOx emission and exhaust temperature could be explained by the change in adiabatic flame temperature of the mixture. The fuel knock resistance improved significantly with the gasohol so that ignition could be timed at a value much closer or at MBT timing. Changing from 0% to 100% ethanol in the fuel, this combustion phasing improvement led to a 20% increase in NIMEP and 8 percentage points in fuel conversion efficiency at 1500 rpm. At 2000 rpm, where knocking was less severe, the improvement was about half (10% increase in NIMEP and 4 percentage points in fuel conversion efficiency).
X