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Technical Paper

An Electronically Tunable Resonator for Noise Control

2001-04-30
2001-01-1615
Many engineering systems create unwanted noise that can be reduced by the careful application of engineering noise controls. When this noise travels down tubes and pipes, a tuned resonator can be used to muffle noise escaping from the tube. The classical examples are automobile exhaust and ventilation system noise. In these cases where a narrow frequency band of noise exists, a traditional engineering control consists of adding a tuned Helmholtz resonator to reduce unwanted tonal noise by reflecting it back to the source (Temkin, 1981). As long as the frequency of the unwanted noise falls within the tuned resonator frequency range, the device is effective. However, if the frequency of the unwanted sound changes to a frequency that does not match the tuned resonator frequency, the device is no longer effective. Conventional resonators have fixed tuning and cannot effectively muffle tonal noise with time-varying frequency.
Technical Paper

Torsional Vibration Absorbers: A Testing and Evaluation Apparatus

2001-04-30
2001-01-1577
A device has been designed and built to allow one to systematically investigate the dynamical behavior of a wide variety of torsional vibration absorbers (TVAs). These are devices that can passively absorb the torsional vibration of a wide range of rotating systems. The testing device allows different operating conditions to be studied and similarities and discrepancies between theoretical predictions and experimental results can be made. The manuscript emphasizes the design and capabilities of the device and discusses the instrumentation of the system. It also presents a limited number of experimental results along with the associated theoretical predictions.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Loading Rate on the Degree of Acute Injury and Chronic Conditions in the Knee After Blunt Impact

2000-11-01
2000-01-SC20
Lower extremity injuries due to automobile accidents are often overlooked, but can have a profound societal cost. Knee injuries, for example, account for approximately 10% of the total injuries. Fracture of the knee is not only an acute issue but may also have chronic, or long term, consequences. The criterion currently used for evaluation of knee injuries in new automobiles, however, is based on experimental impact data from the 70''s using seated human cadavers. These studies involved various padded and rigid impact interfaces that slightly alter the duration of contact. Based on these data and a simple mathematical model of the femur, it appears fracture tolerance increases as contact duration shortens. In contrast, more recent studies have shown mitigation of gross fractures of the knee itself using padded interfaces. The use of padded interfaces, however, result in coincidental changes in contact duration and knee contact area.
Technical Paper

Assessment of Alternative Strategies for Reducing Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide Emissions from Small Two-Stroke Engines

1996-02-01
960743
Five small two-stroke engine designs were tested at different air/fuel ratios, under steady state and transient cycles. The effects of combustion chamber design, carburetor design, lean burning, and fuel composition on performance, hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions were studied. All tested engines had been designed to run richer than stoichiometric in order to obtain satisfactory cooling and higher power. While hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions could be greatly reduced with lean burning, engine durability would be worsened. However, it was shown that the use of a catalytic converter with acceptably lean combustion was an effective method of reducing emissions. Replacing carburetion with in-cylinder fuel injection in one of the engines resulted in a significant reduction of hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions.
Technical Paper

Life Cycle Management - A Manageable Approach for Integrating Life Cycle Management into Manufacturing

1996-02-01
961028
Environmental issues have significantly impacted automotive operations worldwide. Countries are continuing to ratchet down their allowable emissions and to remain competitive, all industries must take Life Cycle Management (LCM) and implement it into everyday practice. Economic competitiveness as a part of economic development is central to the nation's social and financial well-being. America must catch-up to the rest of the world in how it views government and industry relationships as well as how to focus costs within the corporate structure. The adversarial relationships between government and industry must give way to stronger partnerships. For this concept to succeed a long term view of problems must be made by a corporation and both short and long term actions taken to resolve these problems. Industry must help create the market for recycled goods and must “walk the talk” by using recycled goods where possible.
Technical Paper

Effects of Ambient Conditions on the Emissions of a Small Carbureted Four-Stroke Engine

1996-08-01
961739
The exhaust-gas emissions of a small four-stroke, carbureted, single-cylinder spark-ignition engine have been studied as functions of ambient conditions, using gasoline as the fuel. In steady-state dynamometer tests at fixed engine speeds/loads, carried out under different climatic conditions, the concentrations of exhaust-gas components have been measured. Their dependence on ambient conditions has been analyzed principally in terms of the influence of ambient temperature, pressure, and humidity on the air-fuel ratio metered by the carburetor. While the air-fuel ratio of carbureted utility engines at fixed loads varies by only a small percentage during modest changes in ambient air conditions, these changes can correspond to significant changes in the production of regulated pollutants. Using a correction for air mass flow and fuel density at wide open throttle, the scatter in observed air-fuel ratio and % CO data could be reduced by about one third.
Technical Paper

Automated Test Request and Data Acquisition System for Vehicle Emission Testing

1997-02-24
970273
Due to new regulations, emissions development and compliance testing have become more complex. The amount of data acquired, the number of test types, and the variety of test conditions have increased greatly. Due to this increase, managing test information from request to analysis of results has become a critical factor. Also, automated test result presentation and test storage increases the value and quality of each test. This paper describes a computer system developed to cope with the increasing complexity of vehicle emission testing.
Technical Paper

Advancements in RRIM Fascia Application Provide Cost Competitiveness While Meeting Performance Requirements

1997-02-24
970482
The commercial validation of a optimized RRIM polyurethane substrate with a novel barrier coat for fascia applications is reviewed which creates cost competitiveness to thermoplastic olefins (TPO), without sacrificing performance. Meeting fascia performance requirements with thinner and lighter RRIM materials containing recyclate and the subsequent application of a barrier coat eliminating the traditional primecoat cycle was investigated.
Technical Paper

Using Life Cycle Management to Evaluate Lead-Free Electrocoat‡

1997-02-24
970696
Environmental costs are a delayed financial burden that result from product decisions made early in the product life cycle--early material choices may create regulatory and waste management costs that were not factored into the acquisition cost. This paper outlines a step-wise approach to determine decision points; environmental, health, safety and recycling (EHS&R) cost drivers that affect decisions; and sources of information required to conduct a Life Cycle Management (LCM) review. Additionally, how LCM fits into the larger concurrent engineering framework is illustrated with an electrocoat primer example. Upstream and downstream supply chain processes are reviewed, as well as organizational challenges that affect the decision process.
Technical Paper

Impact Response of Foam Composites

1997-02-24
971065
Foamed materials and rubbery materials have been commonly used as energy absorbers in automotive safety designs. The present study investigates the response of polyurethane, vinyl, and their laminations with aluminum panels under low-velocity impact. In addition to force history and force-deflection relation, impact parameters such as peak force, contact duration, maximum deflection, and energy absorption capability are of primary concerns. Experimental results reveal that the lamination sequence affects the impact parameters significantly, LS-DYNA3D is also used to verify the experimental findings.
Technical Paper

A CAE Methodology for Reducing Rattle in Structural Components

1997-05-20
972057
Squeak and rattle has become a primary source of undesired noise in automobiles due to the continual diminishment of engine, power train and tire noise levels. This article presents a finite-element-based methodology for the improvement of rattle performance of vehicle components. For implementation purposes, it has been applied to study the rattle of a glove compartment latch and corner rubber bumpers. Results from the glove compartment study are summarized herein. Extensions to other rattle problems are also highlighted.
Technical Paper

Quantitative Prediction of Rattle in Impacting System

1997-05-20
972059
This paper presents the results of a combined theoretical and experimental study to find the relationship between a system's parameters and the sound generated when the system impacts against a rigid fixture. Although the particular physical structure investigated is a flexible cantilever beam, the approach adopted is such that the results are valid for a more general class of problem.
Technical Paper

Panel Contribution Study: Results, Correlation and Optimal Bead Pattern for Powertrain Noise Reduction

1997-05-20
971953
To understand how the passenger compartment cavity interacts with the surrounding panels (roof, windshield, dash panel, etc) a numerical panel contribution analysis was performed using FEA and BEA techniques. An experimental panel contribution analysis was conducted by Reiter Automotive Systems. Test results showed good correlation with the simulation results. After gaining some insight into panel contributions for power train noise, an attempt was made to introduce beads in panels to reduce vibration levels. A fully trimmed body structural-acoustic FEA model was used in this analysis. A network of massless beam elements was created in the model. This full structural-acoustic FEA model was then used to determine the optimal location for the beads, using the added beams as optimization variables.
Technical Paper

Attenuation of Engine Torsional Vibrations Using Tuned Pendulum Absorbers

1997-05-20
971961
In this paper results are presented from a study that investigates the use of centrifugally driven pendulum vibration absorbers for the attenuation of engine torsional vibrations. Such absorbers consist essentially of movable counterweights whose center of mass is restricted to move along a specified path relative to the rotational frame of reference. These devices are commonly used in light aircraft engines and helicopter rotors. The most common designs use a circular path for the absorber, tuned to a particular order of rotor disturbance, although more recent developments offer a wider variety of paths. Our goal here is to evaluate the system performance for a range of path types with different types of tuning. This analytical study is carried out for a simple mechanical model that includes a rotor and an absorber riding along a quite general path. Approximate solutions are obtained using a perturbation scheme and compared with detailed computational results.
Technical Paper

Development of a Comparison Index and a Database for Sea Model Results

1997-05-20
972008
This study analyzes methods of comparing SEA model results with experimental results for key traits. These qualitative traits provide the basis for correlation of model results with experimental results through the development of a comparison index. This paper formulates a comparison index and illustrates the application to SEA models. A customized data structure was designed around the comparison index to store all necessary aspects of the modeling, experiment and comparison results. This data structure was then implemented using relational database software. These new tools; the comparison index and the SEA database, will create a common language and a forum for SEA model results that will aid and stimulate dialog in the SEA modeling community and in tern, advance the science of SEA modeling.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Lower Torso of Hybrid III Dummy

1997-04-08
971528
A finite element model for hybrid III dummy's lower torso is presented. All details of the dummy's knee structure are carefully considered. In order to justify the finite element model, numerical results are made to compare with the experimental results from both knee impact test and knee slider impact test. It is found that the finite element results agree very well with their experimental counterparts.
Technical Paper

Can the k-ε Model Withstand the Challenges Posed by Complex Industrial Flows?

1997-04-08
971516
The purpose of this paper is to present numerical solution for three-dimensional flow about rotating short cylinders using the computer program AIRFLO3D. The flow Reynolds number was kept at 106 for all computations. The drag forces on the cylinder were obtained for different rotational speeds. Predictions were obtained for both an isolated cylinder and a cylinder on a moving ground. The standard k-ε model was employed to model the turbulence. Computed drag coefficients agreed well with the previous experimental data up to a spin ratio (=rω/V) of 1.5.
Technical Paper

The Automotive Cooling Fan Research and Development Facility

1997-05-19
971784
A new and unique facility has been developed at the Turbulent Shear Flows Laboratory at Michigan State University for the study of automotive cooling fans. Performance data can be acquired for a variety of fan and component geometries using this facility. Additionally, detailed velocity measurements can be made in the wake of the fan. This paper describes the details of the facility with examples of the data that can be acquired.
Technical Paper

Performance Measurements and Detailed Flow Field Observations for a Light Truck Cooling Fan

1997-05-19
971794
Cooling fan performance: pressure rise, flow rate, shaft power have been acquired. The control variables for these measurements include the fan rprn and the relative immersion of the fan into the shroud. In addition tuft visualizations and hot-wire anemometry have been used to visualize and measure the velocity field in the wake of the fan. The velocity measurements have been processed to provide phase averaged mean and RMS fluctuation levels. The mean values have been differentiated to provide the phase averaged streamwise vorticity magnitudes. The data are used to gain an understanding of the fluid mechanical attributes of the flow field, as well as to provide experimental results for comparison with computational investigations.
Technical Paper

Life Cycle Management of Hydraulic Fluids and Lubricant Oils at Chrysler

1998-11-30
982221
A systematic life cycle management (LCM) approach has been used by Chrysler Corporation to compare existing and alternate hydraulic fluids and lubricating oils in thirteen classifications at a manufacturing facility. The presence of restricted or regulated chemicals, recyclability, and recycled content of the various products were also compared. For ten of the thirteen types of product, an alternate product was identified as more beneficial. This LCM study provided Chrysler personnel with a practical purchasing tool to identify the most cost effective hydraulic fluid or lubricant oil product available for a chosen application on an LCM basis.
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