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Technical Paper

Characterization of Crankcase Pressure Variation during the Engine Cycle of an Internal Combustion Engine

High frequency variations in crankcase pressure have been observed in Inline-four cylinder (I4) engines and an understanding of the causes, frequency and magnitude of these variations is helpful in the design and effective operation of various engine systems. This paper shows through a review and explanation of the physics related to engine operation followed by comparison to measured vehicle data, the relationship between crankcase volume throughout the engine cycle and the observed pressure fluctuations. It is demonstrated that for a known or proposed engine design, through knowledge of the key engine design parameters, the frequency and amplitude of the cyclic variation in crankcase pressure can be predicted and thus utilized in the design of other engine systems.
Technical Paper

Establishment of a Database by Conducting Intake Manifold and In-Cylinder Flow Measurements inside an Internal Combustion Engine Assembly

An experimental study has been conducted to quantify the velocity and pressure inside an idealized intake manifold of a motored internal combustion engine assembly. The aim of this work is to provide the real-time boundary conditions for more accurate multi-dimensional numerical simulations of complex in-cylinder flows in an internal combustion engine as well as the resultant in-cylinder flow patterns. The geometry of the intake manifold is simplified for this purpose. A hot-wire anemometer and a piezoresistive absolute pressure transducer are used to measure the velocity and pressure, respectively, over a plane inside the circular section of the intake manifold. In addition, pressure measurements are performed over an elliptical section near the intake port. Phase-averaged velocity and pressure profiles are then calculated from the instantaneous measurements. Experiments were performed at 900 and 1200 rpm engine speeds with wide open throttle.
Technical Paper

Model Order Reduction Using Basis Expansions for Near field Acoustic Holography

The identification/localization of propulsion noise in turbo machinery plays an important role in its design and in noise mitigation techniques. Near field acoustic holography (NAH) is the process by which all aspects of the sound field can be reconstructed based on sound pressure measurements in the near field domain. Identification of noise sources, particularly in turbo-machinery applications, efficiently and accurately is difficult due to complex noise generation mechanisms. Backward prediction of the sound field closer to the source than the measurement plane is typically an unstable “ill-posed” inverse problem due to the presence of measurement noise. Therefore regularized inversion techniques are typically implemented for noise source reconstruction. Another major source of ill-posedness in NAH inverse problems is a larger number of unknowns (sources) than available pressure measurements. A model reduction technique is proposed in this paper to address this issue.
Technical Paper

In-cylinder Combustion Visualization of a Direct-injection Spark-ignition Engine with Different Operating Conditions and Fuels

A direct-injection and spark-ignition single-cylinder engine with optical access to the cylinder was used for the combustion visualization study. Gasoline and ethanol-gasoline blended fuels were used in this investigation. Experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of fuel injection pressure, injection timing and the number of injections on the in-cylinder combustion process. Two types of direct fuel injectors were used; (i) high-pressure production injector with fuel pressures of 5 and 10 MPa, and (ii) low-pressure production-intent injector with fuel pressure of 3 MPa. Experiments were performed at 1500 rpm engine speed with partial load. In-cylinder pressure signals were recorded for the combustion analyses and synchronized with the high-speed combustion imaging recording. Visualization results show that the flame growth is faster with the increment of fuel injection pressure.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulations of Turbulent Sprays with a Multicomponent Evaporation Model

A multicomponent droplet evaporation model which discretizes the one-dimensional mass and temperature profiles inside a droplet with a finite volume method has been developed and implemented into a large-eddy simulation (LES) model for spray simulations. The LES and multicomponent models were used along with the KH-RT secondary droplet breakup model to simulate realistic fuel sprays in a closed vessel. The effect of various spray and ambient gas parameters on the liquid penetration length of different single component and multicomponent fuels was investigated. The numerical results indicate that the spray penetration length decreases non-linearly with increasing gas temperature or pressure and is less sensitive to changes in ambient gas conditions at higher temperatures or pressures. The spray models and LES were found to predict the experimental results for n-hexadecane and two multicomponent surrogate diesel fuels reasonably well.
Technical Paper

Numerical Evaluation of A Methanol Fueled Directly-Injected Engine

A numerical study on the combustion of Methanol in a directly injected (DI) engine was conducted. The study considers the effect of the bowl-in-piston (BIP) geometry, swirl ratio (SR), and relative equivalence ratio (λ), on flame propagation and burn rate of Methanol in a 4-stroke engine. Ignition-assist in this engine was accomplished by a spark plug system. Numerical simulations of two different BIP geometries were considered. Combustion characteristics of Methanol under swirl and no-swirl conditions were investigated. In addition, the amount of injected fuel was varied in order to determine the effect of stoichiometry on combustion. Only the compression and expansion strokes were simulated. The results show that fuel-air mixing, combustion, and flame propagation was significantly enhanced when swirl was turned on. This resulted in a higher peak pressure in the cylinder, and more heat loss through the cylinder walls.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study on the Factors Affecting Ethanol Ignition Delay Times in a Rapid Compression Machine

Ignition delay, using a rapid compression machine (RCM), is defined as the time period between the end of compression and the maximum rate of pressure rise due to combustion, at a given compressed condition of temperature and pressure. The same compressed conditions can be reached by a variety of combinations of compression ratio, initial temperature, initial pressure, diluent gas composition, etc. It has been assumed that the value of ignition delay, for a given fuel and at a given set of compressed conditions, would be the same, irrespective of the variety of the above-mentioned combinations that were used to achieve the compressed conditions. In this study, a range of initial conditions and compression ratios are studied to determine their effect on ignition delay time and to show how ignition delay time can differ even at the same compressed conditions.
Technical Paper

Laminar Flame Speeds of Premixed Iso-Octane/Air Flames at High Temperatures with CO2 Dilution

Spherically expanding flames are employed to measure the laminar flame speed of premixed iso-octane/air mixtures at elevated temperatures through both experiments and numerical simulations. Iso-octane (2,2,4-trimethlypentane) is an important gasoline primary reference fuel (PRF). While most studies on laminar burning velocity of iso-octane focus on low temperatures (less than 400 K), the experiments here were conducted in an optically accessible constant volume combustion chamber between 373 K-473 K, at a pressure of 1 bar, and from ϕ=0.8 to ϕ=1.6. The effect of diluent is investigated through the addition of 15% CO2 dilution in order to simulate the effect of exhaust gas recirculation. The decreased reactivity with diluent addition reduces mixture reactivity, which can reduce the propensity for knock in spark ignition engines. All laminar flame speeds were calculated using the constant pressure method enabled via schlieren visualization of the spherically propagating flame front.