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Technical Paper

Hybrid Electric Vehicle Battery Aging Estimation and Economic Analysis based on Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy

This paper presents results on how the Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy (ECMS) penalty factor effects Lithium ion battery aging. The vehicle studied is the Honda Civic Hybrid. The battery used is A123 Systems’. Vehicle simulation using multiple combinations of highway and city drive cycles. For each combination of drive cycles, six ECMS penalty factor values are used. Battery aging is evaluated using a semi-empirical model combined with accumulated Ah-throughput method which uses, as an input, the battery state of charge trajectory from the vehicle simulations. The tradeoff between fuel cost and battery aging cost is explicitly displayed. In addition, the results provide insight into how driving behavior affects battery aging. The paper concludes with a discussion of the optimal balance between fuel cost and battery aging.
Technical Paper

Development and Evaluation of a Diesel Powered Truck Cooling System Computer Simulation Program

A computer simulation program was developed to simulate the thermal responses of an on-highway, heavy duty diesel powered truck in transient operation for evaluation of cooling system performance. Mathematical models of the engine, heat exchangers, lubricating oil system, thermal control sensors (thermostat and shutterstat), auxiliary components, and the cab were formulated and calibrated to laboratory experimental data. The component models were assembled into the vehicle engine cooling system model and used to predict air-to-boil temperatures. The model has the capability to predict real time coolant, oil and cab temperatures using vehicle simulation input data over various routes.
Technical Paper

Engine Modifications for MTU’s 1982 Super Mileage Vehicle

The Super Mileage Competition is an annual event sponsored by the Western Michigan Section of the Society of Automotive Engineers, the Eaton Corporation and the Briggs and Stratton Corporation. The purpose of this competition is to give engineering students “hands on” experience with the design and manufacture of a competitive vehicle and to increase public awareness of fuel efficient vehicles. This paper describes the engine modifications, testing procedure and results of these modifications made to the super mileage vehicle entered by Michigan Technological University in the 1982 Super Mileage Competition. These modifications resulted in greater than a twenty-five percent increase in specific fuel consumption over the stock engine. With this modified engine, the completed vehicle achieved over 440 miles per gallon in the final competition.
Technical Paper

Midwest Baja—Perspectives on Participation

The 1980 SAE sponsored Midwest Baja was attended by thirteen schools. The Michigan Technological University vehicle finished fourth overall in the competition but first of the first year entries. Participation in this event requires a considerable investment of time and resources on the part of the students and faculty but the rewards are great. The student chapter faculty advisor sees the activity as an enjoyable competitive experience for the SAE student members to learn first hand and in a responsible way what it means to be an engineer. The design professor sees the project as one of the best tools for teaching and learning the interrelation of product design, manufacture, time schedules, costs and project management. The technical advisors see the activity as an opportunity for the participating students to operate in a complex coordinated group effort that is a realistic model of industry. The students see the activity as an important part of their education.
Technical Paper

Integration of an ORC Waste Heat Recovery with Electrification and Supercharging through Use of a Planetary Gear System for a Class 8 Tractor Application

A novel approach to the Integration of Turbocompounding/WHR, Electrification and Supercharging technologies (ITES) to reduce fuel consumption in a medium heavy-duty diesel engine was previously published by FEV. This paper describes a modified approach to ITES to reduce fuel consumption on a heavy-duty diesel engine applied in a Class 8 tractor. The original implementation of the ITES incorporated a turbocompound turbine as the means for waste heat recovery. In this new approach, the turbocompound unit connected to the sun gear of the planetary gear set has been replaced by an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) turbine expander. The secondary compressor and the electric motor-generator are connected to the ring gear and the carrier gear respectively. The ITES unit is equipped with dry clutch and band brake allowing flexibility in mechanical and electrical integration of the ORC expander, secondary compressor and electric motor-generator to the engine.