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Technical Paper

A Study of the Effect of a Catalyzed Particulate Filter on the Emissions from a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine with EGR

2001-03-05
2001-01-0910
The effects of a catalyzed particulate filter (CPF) and Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on heavy-duty diesel engine emissions were studied in this research. EGR is used to reduce the NOx emissions but at the same time it can increase total particulate matter (TPM) emissions. CPF is technology available for retrofitting existing vehicles in the field to reduce the TPM emissions. A conventional low sulfur fuel (371 ppm S) was used in all the engine runs. Steady-state loading and regeneration experiments were performed with CPF I to determine its performance with respect to pressure drop and particulate mass characteristics at different engine operating conditions. From the dilution tunnel emission characterization results for CPF II, at Mode 11 condition (25% load - 311 Nm, 1800 rpm), the TPM, HC and vapor phase emissions (XOC) were decreased by 70%, 62% and 62% respectively downstream of the CPF II.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Effects of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Emissions

1998-05-04
981422
The effects of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on heavy-duty diesel emissions were studied at two EPA steady-state operating conditions, old EPA mode 9* (1800 RPM, 75% Load) and old EPA mode 11 (1800 RPM, 25% Load). Data were collected at the baseline, 10% and 16% EGR rates for both EPA modes. The study was conducted using a 1995 Cummins M11-330E heavy-duty diesel engine and compared to the baseline emissions from the Cummins 1988 and 1991 L10 engines. The baseline gas-, vapor- and particle-phase emissions were measured together with the particle size distributions at all modes of operation. The total particulate matter (TPM) and vapor phase (XOC) samples were analyzed for physical, chemical and biological properties. The results showed that newer engines with electronic engine controls and higher injector pressures produce TPM decreases from the 1988 to 1991 to 1995 engines with the solids decreasing more than the soluble organic fraction (SOF) of TPM.
Technical Paper

Effects of an Oxidation Catalytic Converter on Regulated and Unregulated Diesel Emissions

1994-03-01
940243
In this study, the effects of an oxidation catalytic converter (OCC) on regulated and unregulated emissions from a 1991 prototype Cummins I.10-310 diesel engine fueled with a 0.01 weight percent sulfur fuel were investigated. The OCC's effects were determined by measuring and comparing selected raw exhaust emissions with and without the platinum-based OCC installed in the exhaust system, with the engine operated at three steady-state modes. It was found that the OCC had no significant effect on oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and nitric oxide (NO) at any mode, but reduced hydrocarbon (HC) emmissions by 60 to 70 percent. The OCC reduced total particulate matter (TPM) levels by 27 to 54 percent, primarily resulting from 53 to 71 percent reductions of the soluble organic fraction (SOF). The OCC increased sulfate (SO42-) levels at two of the three modes (modes 9 and 10), but the overall SO42- contribution to TPM was less than 6 percent at all modes due to the low sulfur level of the fuel.
Technical Paper

A Review of Diesel Particulate Control Technology and Emissions Effects - 1992 Horning Memorial Award Lecture

1994-03-01
940233
Studies have been conducted at Michigan Technological University (MTU) for over twenty years on methods for characterizing and controlling particulate emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines and the resulting effects on regulated and unregulated emissions. During that time, control technologies have developed in response to more stringent EPA standards for diesel emissions. This paper is a review of: 1) modern emission control technologies, 2) emissions sampling and chemical, physical and biological characterization methods and 3) summary results from recent studies conducted at MTU on heavy-duty diesel engines with a trap and an oxidation catalytic converter (OCC) operated on three different fuels. Control technology developments discussed are particulate traps, catalysts, advances in engine design, the application of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), and modifications of fuel formulations.
Technical Paper

Effects of a Ceramic Particle Trap and Copper Fuel Additive on Heavy-Duty Diesel Emissions

1994-10-01
942068
This research quantifies the effects of a copper fuel additive on the regulated [oxides of nitrogen (NOx), hydrocarbons (HC) and total particulate matter (TPM)] and unregulated emissions [soluble organic fraction (SOF), vapor phase organics (XOC), polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), nitro-PAH, particle size distributions and mutagenic activity] from a 1988 Cummins LTA10 diesel engine using a low sulfur fuel. The engine was operated at two steady state modes (EPA modes 9 and 11, which are 75 and 25% load at rated speed, respectively) and five additive levels (0, 15, 30, 60 and 100 ppm Cu by mass) with and without a ceramic trap. Measurements of PAH and mutagenic activity were limited to the 0, 30 and 60 ppm Cu levels. Data were also collected to assess the effect of the additive on regeneration temperature and duration. Copper species collected within the trap were identified and exhaust copper concentrations quantified.
Technical Paper

Collection and Characterization of Particulate and Gaseous-Phase Hydrocarbons in Diesel Exhaust Modified by Ceramic Particulate Traps

1987-02-01
870254
Protocols for sampling and analysis of particulate and gaseous-phase diesel emissions were developed to characterize the chemical and biological effects of using ceramic traps as particulate control devices. A stainless-steel sampler was designed, constructed, and tested with XAD-2 sorbent for the collection of volatile organic compounds (VOC). Raw exhaust levels of TPM and SOF and mutagenicity of the SOF and VOC were all reduced when the traps were used. Hydrocarbon mass balances indicated that some hydrocarbons were not collected by the sampling system and that the proportions of collected SOF and VOC were altered by the use of the traps. SOF hydrocarbons appeared to be derived mainly from engine lubricating oil; VOC hydrocarbons were apparently fuel-derived. There was no apparent effect on SOF mutagenicity due to either sampling time or reexposure of particulate to exhaust gases.
Technical Paper

The Characterization of the Hydrocarbon and Sulfate Fractions of Diesel Particulate Matter

1978-02-01
780111
One of the more objectionable aspects of the use of diesel engines has been the emission of particulate matter. A literature review of combustion flames, theoretical calculations and dilution tunnel experiments have been performed to elucidate the chemical and physical processes involved in the formation of diesel particulate matter. A comparative dilution tunnel study of diluted and undiluted total particulate data provided evidence supporting calculations that indicate hydro-carbon condensation should occur in the tunnel at low exhaust temperatures. The sample collection system for the measurement of total particulate matter and soluble sulfate in particulate matter on the EPA 13 mode cycle is presented. A method to correct for hydrocarbon interferences in the EPA barium chloranilate method for the determination of sulfate in particulate matter is discussed.
Technical Paper

Effect of Fuels and Dilution Ratio on Diesel Particulate Emissions

1979-02-01
790417
An experimental investigation of the effect of fuel variables and exhaust dilution on diesel particulate emissions from a Caterpillar 3208 direct injection naturally aspirated engine is presented. Three test fuels with widely varying gravity, volatility, aromatic and sulfur content were used. Exhaust dilution was varied from 50 to 1 volume dilution ratio to 1 to 1 (undiluted). Particulate characterization of the total particulates, sulfates, soluble organic fraction and the fractional break down of the soluble fraction are shown. Both fuel variables and exhaust dilution were shown to have a significant effect on the measured particulate emission levels.
Technical Paper

The Characterization of the Soluble Organic Fraction of Diesel Particulate Matter

1979-02-01
790418
This paper is concerned with the demonstration of a methodology for chemically characterizing diesel particulate organic matter (POM) emissions. The procedure begins with a Soxhlet extraction of the POM with dichloromethane to obtain a soluble organic fraction (SOF). The acidic and basic portions of the SOF are isolated by liquid-liquid extraction techniques with aqueous base and aqueous acid, respectively. The neutral portion of the extract is separated into paraffin, aromatic, transitional and oxygenated fractions by column chromatography on silica gel. Two additional fractions, the ether insoluble and hexane insoluble fractions, are also separated by the procedure. Quantitative mass data are presented on the extraction and fractionation of twelve particulate samples from the exhaust of a medium-duty diesel engine collected in a dilution tunnel at a volume dilution ratio of 8 to 1.
Technical Paper

The Influence of a Low Sulfur Fuel and a Ceramic Particle Trap on the Physical, Chemical, and Biological Character of Heavy-Duty Diesel Emissions

1992-02-01
920565
This study was conducted to assess the effects of a low sulfur (<0.05 wt.%) fuel and an uncatalyzed ceramic particle trap on heavy-duty diesel emissions during both steady-state operation and during periods of electrically assisted trap regeneration. A Cummins LTA10-300 engine was operated at two steady-state modes with and without the trap. The exhaust trap system included a Corning EX-54 trap with an electrically assisted regeneration system. Both regulated emissions (oxides of nitrogen - NOx, total hydrocarbons - HC, and total particulate matter - TPM) and some unregulated emissions (polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons - PAH soluble organic fraction - SOF, sulfates, vapor phase organics, and mutagenic activity) were measured during baseline, trap, and regeneration conditions. Emissions were collected with low sulfur (0.01 wt.%) fuel and compared to emissions with a conventional sulfur (0.32 wt.%) fuel. These fuels also varied in other fuel properties.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Character and Deposition Rates of Sulfur Species in the EGR Cooling System of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

1999-10-25
1999-01-3566
Various measurement techniques were employed to quantify sulfuric acid deposition levels and concentration of sulfuric acid in the condensate from the recirculated exhaust gas heat exchanger of a 1995 Cummins M11 heavy-duty diesel engine. Methods employed included a modified version of the sulfur species sampling system developed by Kreso et al. (1)*, rinsing the heat exchanger, and experiments employing a condensate collection device (CCD). The modified sampling system was applied to the inlet and outlet of the heat exchanger in order to quantify the changes in various sulfur compounds. Doped sulfur fuel (3300 to 4000 ppm S) was used to increase the concentrations of the various oxides of sulfur (SOx). These tests were performed at mode 9 of the old EPA 13-mode test cycle (1800 RPM, 932N*m) with 17-20% exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) at two EGR outlet temperatures: 160°C and 103°C.
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