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Technical Paper

A Study of the Effect of a Catalyzed Particulate Filter on the Emissions from a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine with EGR

2001-03-05
2001-01-0910
The effects of a catalyzed particulate filter (CPF) and Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on heavy-duty diesel engine emissions were studied in this research. EGR is used to reduce the NOx emissions but at the same time it can increase total particulate matter (TPM) emissions. CPF is technology available for retrofitting existing vehicles in the field to reduce the TPM emissions. A conventional low sulfur fuel (371 ppm S) was used in all the engine runs. Steady-state loading and regeneration experiments were performed with CPF I to determine its performance with respect to pressure drop and particulate mass characteristics at different engine operating conditions. From the dilution tunnel emission characterization results for CPF II, at Mode 11 condition (25% load - 311 Nm, 1800 rpm), the TPM, HC and vapor phase emissions (XOC) were decreased by 70%, 62% and 62% respectively downstream of the CPF II.
Technical Paper

A Computer Simulation of the Turbocharged Diesel Engine as an Enhancement of the Vehicle Engine Cooling System Simulation

1997-05-19
971804
A computer simulation of the turbocharged direct- injection diesel engine was developed to enhance the capabilities of the Vehicle Engine Cooling System Simulation (VECSS) developed at Michigan Technological University. The engine model was extensively validated against Detroit Diesel Corporation's (DDC) Series 60 engine data. In addition to the new engine model a charge-air-cooler model was developed and incorporated into the VECSS. A Freightliner truck with a Detroit Diesel's Series 60 engine, Behr McCord radiator, AlliedSignal/Garrett Automotive charge air cooler, Kysor DST variable speed fan clutch and other cooling system components was used for the study. The data were collected using the Detroit Diesel Electronic Controls (DDEC)-Electronic Control Module (ECM) and Hewlett Packard data acquisition system. The enhanced model's results were compared to the steady state TTD (top tank differential) data.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Effects of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Emissions

1998-05-04
981422
The effects of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on heavy-duty diesel emissions were studied at two EPA steady-state operating conditions, old EPA mode 9* (1800 RPM, 75% Load) and old EPA mode 11 (1800 RPM, 25% Load). Data were collected at the baseline, 10% and 16% EGR rates for both EPA modes. The study was conducted using a 1995 Cummins M11-330E heavy-duty diesel engine and compared to the baseline emissions from the Cummins 1988 and 1991 L10 engines. The baseline gas-, vapor- and particle-phase emissions were measured together with the particle size distributions at all modes of operation. The total particulate matter (TPM) and vapor phase (XOC) samples were analyzed for physical, chemical and biological properties. The results showed that newer engines with electronic engine controls and higher injector pressures produce TPM decreases from the 1988 to 1991 to 1995 engines with the solids decreasing more than the soluble organic fraction (SOF) of TPM.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Regeneration Process in Diesel Particulate Traps Using a Copper Fuel Additive

1996-02-01
960136
The goals of this research are to understand the regeneration process in ceramic (Cordierite) monolith traps using a copper fuel additive and to investigate the various conditions that lead to trap regeneration failure. The copper additive lowers the trap regeneration temperature from approximately 500 °C to 375 °C and decreases the time necessary for regeneration. Because of these characteristics, it is important to understand the effect of the additive on regeneration when excessive particulate matter accumulation occurs in the trap. The effects of particulate mass loading on regeneration temperatures and regeneration time were studied for both the controlled (engine operated at full load rated speed) and uncontrolled (trap regeneration initiated at full load rated speed after which the engine was cut to idle) conditions. The trap peak temperatures were higher for the uncontrolled than the controlled regeneration.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Fuel and Engine Design on Diesel Exhaust Particle Size Distributions

1996-02-01
960131
The objective of this research was to obtain diesel particle size distributions from a 1988 and a 1991 diesel engine using three different fuels and two exhaust control technologies (a ceramic particle trap and an oxidation catalytic converter). The particle size distributions from both engines were used to develop models to estimate the composition of the individual size particles. Nucleation theory of the H2O and H2SO4 vapor is used to predict when nuclei-mode particles will form in the dilution tunnel. Combining the theory with the experimental data, the conditions necessary in the dilution tunnel for particle formation are predicted. The paper also contains a discussion on the differences between the 1988 and 1991 engine's particle size distributions. The results indicated that nuclei mode particles (0.0075-0.046 μm) are formed in the dilution tunnel and consist of more than 80% H2O-H2SO4 particles when using the 1988 engine and 0.29 wt% sulfur fuel.
Technical Paper

Effects of an Oxidation Catalytic Converter on Regulated and Unregulated Diesel Emissions

1994-03-01
940243
In this study, the effects of an oxidation catalytic converter (OCC) on regulated and unregulated emissions from a 1991 prototype Cummins I.10-310 diesel engine fueled with a 0.01 weight percent sulfur fuel were investigated. The OCC's effects were determined by measuring and comparing selected raw exhaust emissions with and without the platinum-based OCC installed in the exhaust system, with the engine operated at three steady-state modes. It was found that the OCC had no significant effect on oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and nitric oxide (NO) at any mode, but reduced hydrocarbon (HC) emmissions by 60 to 70 percent. The OCC reduced total particulate matter (TPM) levels by 27 to 54 percent, primarily resulting from 53 to 71 percent reductions of the soluble organic fraction (SOF). The OCC increased sulfate (SO42-) levels at two of the three modes (modes 9 and 10), but the overall SO42- contribution to TPM was less than 6 percent at all modes due to the low sulfur level of the fuel.
Technical Paper

A Review of Diesel Particulate Control Technology and Emissions Effects - 1992 Horning Memorial Award Lecture

1994-03-01
940233
Studies have been conducted at Michigan Technological University (MTU) for over twenty years on methods for characterizing and controlling particulate emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines and the resulting effects on regulated and unregulated emissions. During that time, control technologies have developed in response to more stringent EPA standards for diesel emissions. This paper is a review of: 1) modern emission control technologies, 2) emissions sampling and chemical, physical and biological characterization methods and 3) summary results from recent studies conducted at MTU on heavy-duty diesel engines with a trap and an oxidation catalytic converter (OCC) operated on three different fuels. Control technology developments discussed are particulate traps, catalysts, advances in engine design, the application of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), and modifications of fuel formulations.
Technical Paper

Effects of a Ceramic Particle Trap and Copper Fuel Additive on Heavy-Duty Diesel Emissions

1994-10-01
942068
This research quantifies the effects of a copper fuel additive on the regulated [oxides of nitrogen (NOx), hydrocarbons (HC) and total particulate matter (TPM)] and unregulated emissions [soluble organic fraction (SOF), vapor phase organics (XOC), polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), nitro-PAH, particle size distributions and mutagenic activity] from a 1988 Cummins LTA10 diesel engine using a low sulfur fuel. The engine was operated at two steady state modes (EPA modes 9 and 11, which are 75 and 25% load at rated speed, respectively) and five additive levels (0, 15, 30, 60 and 100 ppm Cu by mass) with and without a ceramic trap. Measurements of PAH and mutagenic activity were limited to the 0, 30 and 60 ppm Cu levels. Data were also collected to assess the effect of the additive on regeneration temperature and duration. Copper species collected within the trap were identified and exhaust copper concentrations quantified.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Regeneration Characteristics of Silicon Carbide and Cordierite Diesel Particulate Filters Using a Copper Fuel Additive

1997-02-24
970187
The purpose of this research was to study the pressure drop profiles and regeneration temperature characteristics of Silicon Carbide (SiC) filters with and without a copper-based additive in the fuel, and also to compare their performance with two cordierite traps designated as EX-47 and EX-80. The collection of the particulate matter inside the trap imposes a backpressure on the engine which requires a periodic oxidation or regeneration of the particulate matter. The presence of copper additive in the fuel reduces the particulate ignition temperature from approximately 500 to 375°C. Two SiC systems were tested during this research. The first system consisted of one 14 L SiC trap, while the second system, the dual trap system (DTS), consisted of two 12 L SiC traps mounted in parallel. The test matrix included two types of regeneration tests, controlled and uncontrolled and three levels of Cu fuel additive (0, 30, and 60 ppm).
Technical Paper

A Theoretical and Experimental Study of the Regeneration Process in a Silicon Carbide Particulate Trap Using a Copper Fuel Additive

1997-02-24
970188
The purpose of this study was to investigate the pressure drop and regeneration characteristics of a silicon carbide (SiC) wall-flow diesel particulate filter. The performance of a 25 μm mean pore size SiC dual trap system (DTS) consisting of two 12 liter traps connected in parallel in conjunction with a copper (Cu) fuel additive was evaluated. A comparison between the 25 μm DTS and a 15 μm DTS was performed, in order to show the effect of trap material mean pore size on trap loading and regeneration behavior. A 1988 Cummins LTA 10-300 diesel engine was used to evaluate the performance of the 15 and 25 μm DTS. A mathematical model was developed to better understand the thermal and catalytic oxidation of the particulate matter. For all the trap steady-state loading tests, the engine was run at EPA mode 11 for 10 hours. Raw exhaust samples were taken upstream and downstream of the trap system in order to determine the DTS filtration efficiency.
Technical Paper

Collection and Characterization of Particulate and Gaseous-Phase Hydrocarbons in Diesel Exhaust Modified by Ceramic Particulate Traps

1987-02-01
870254
Protocols for sampling and analysis of particulate and gaseous-phase diesel emissions were developed to characterize the chemical and biological effects of using ceramic traps as particulate control devices. A stainless-steel sampler was designed, constructed, and tested with XAD-2 sorbent for the collection of volatile organic compounds (VOC). Raw exhaust levels of TPM and SOF and mutagenicity of the SOF and VOC were all reduced when the traps were used. Hydrocarbon mass balances indicated that some hydrocarbons were not collected by the sampling system and that the proportions of collected SOF and VOC were altered by the use of the traps. SOF hydrocarbons appeared to be derived mainly from engine lubricating oil; VOC hydrocarbons were apparently fuel-derived. There was no apparent effect on SOF mutagenicity due to either sampling time or reexposure of particulate to exhaust gases.
Technical Paper

A Statistical Approach to Determining the Effects of Speed, Load, Oil and Coolant Temperature on Diesel Engine Specific Fuel Consumption

1978-02-01
780971
Experimental Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) data are presented for two engines as a function of engine speed, load, outlet coolant temperature and inlet oil temperature. The engines used in the study were the Cummins VT-903 (turbocharged) and the Caterpillar 3208, both being direct-injection and four-cycle. The data were taken for the Cat 3208 engine using a fractional factorial statistical method which reduced the total test matrix from 256 to 64 data points. The experimental data are used in the development of BSFC regression equations as a function of load, speed, outlet coolant temperature and inlet oil temperatures. A mathematical parameter for expressing quantitatively the change of BSFC per 10°F change in coolant and oil temperature is presented. It was found that an increase in the coolant and/or oil temperatures had the effect of reducing BSFC in both engines.
Technical Paper

The Development and Application of Ferrography to the Study of Diesel Engine Wear

1978-02-01
780181
This paper covers the development of Ferrographic oil analysis techniques for the study of diesel engine wear. A brief overview of the various wear analysis techniques now commonly used in laboratory and field engine wear studies is discussed. Also included in this paper is an in depth description of the Ferrographic oil analysis techniques and the various applications of the techniques to the study of engine wear. A comparison of the commonly used wear measurement methods, Ferrography, spectroscopy and the radioactive tracer methods, and their abilities to measure wear is also discussed. A direct injection, 4-cycle, turbocharged diesel engine was used in the testing and data are presented indicating the abilities of the Ferrographic oil analysis techniques to detect changes in wear rates. The effects of operating time on engine oil and the effects of the variation of oil and coolant temperatures on engine wear is presented.
Technical Paper

The Characterization of the Hydrocarbon and Sulfate Fractions of Diesel Particulate Matter

1978-02-01
780111
One of the more objectionable aspects of the use of diesel engines has been the emission of particulate matter. A literature review of combustion flames, theoretical calculations and dilution tunnel experiments have been performed to elucidate the chemical and physical processes involved in the formation of diesel particulate matter. A comparative dilution tunnel study of diluted and undiluted total particulate data provided evidence supporting calculations that indicate hydro-carbon condensation should occur in the tunnel at low exhaust temperatures. The sample collection system for the measurement of total particulate matter and soluble sulfate in particulate matter on the EPA 13 mode cycle is presented. A method to correct for hydrocarbon interferences in the EPA barium chloranilate method for the determination of sulfate in particulate matter is discussed.
Technical Paper

The Physical and Chemical Character of Diesel Particulate Emissions-Measurement Techniques and Fundamental Considerations

1978-02-01
780108
The techniques used to characterize the chemical and physical nature of particulates in diesel exhaust emissions are reviewed. The emphasis is on understanding the broader aspects of the fundamental nature of not only diesel particulates, but particulate systems in general. Consideration is given to the special nature of particulates which make them significant pollutants and to the relative place of the diesel in the formation of man-made particles. The underlying combustion processes leading to carbon and sulfur based particulates are reviewed. The important variables in steps of the combustion processes which lead to particulate formation are considered, as well as major fuel and engine factors. Collection methods are examined with examples given from current diesel dilution techniques. Probes, sampling lines, and instrumentation are considered.
Technical Paper

Effect of Fuels and Dilution Ratio on Diesel Particulate Emissions

1979-02-01
790417
An experimental investigation of the effect of fuel variables and exhaust dilution on diesel particulate emissions from a Caterpillar 3208 direct injection naturally aspirated engine is presented. Three test fuels with widely varying gravity, volatility, aromatic and sulfur content were used. Exhaust dilution was varied from 50 to 1 volume dilution ratio to 1 to 1 (undiluted). Particulate characterization of the total particulates, sulfates, soluble organic fraction and the fractional break down of the soluble fraction are shown. Both fuel variables and exhaust dilution were shown to have a significant effect on the measured particulate emission levels.
Technical Paper

The Characterization of the Soluble Organic Fraction of Diesel Particulate Matter

1979-02-01
790418
This paper is concerned with the demonstration of a methodology for chemically characterizing diesel particulate organic matter (POM) emissions. The procedure begins with a Soxhlet extraction of the POM with dichloromethane to obtain a soluble organic fraction (SOF). The acidic and basic portions of the SOF are isolated by liquid-liquid extraction techniques with aqueous base and aqueous acid, respectively. The neutral portion of the extract is separated into paraffin, aromatic, transitional and oxygenated fractions by column chromatography on silica gel. Two additional fractions, the ether insoluble and hexane insoluble fractions, are also separated by the procedure. Quantitative mass data are presented on the extraction and fractionation of twelve particulate samples from the exhaust of a medium-duty diesel engine collected in a dilution tunnel at a volume dilution ratio of 8 to 1.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Physical Characteristics of Diesel Particulate Matter Using Transmission Electron Microscope Techniques

1979-02-01
790815
An Andersen Impactor was used to collect particulate samples in both the undiluted and diluted exhaust from a Caterpillar 3150 diesel engine operated on the EPA 13-mode cycle. A total of 24 samples were examined using the transmission electron microscope and approximately 300 photomicrographs were taken. The microscope analysis and photomicrographs revealed details concerning the physical characteristics of the particulate and permitted a direct visual comparison of the samples collected. The photomicrographs were used to obtain diameter measurements of the basic individual spherical particles that comprise the much larger aggregates/agglomerates. Nearly 11,000 basic particles were measured and the observed range of diameters was 70-1200 Å. The mean particle diameters in the undiluted and diluted exhaust samples were 479 Å and 436 Å respectively. respectively. A respectively. 436 A respectively.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Low Sulfur Fuel and a Ceramic Particle Filter on Diesel Exhaust Particle Size Distributions

1992-02-01
920566
Diesel exhaust particle size distributions were measured using an Electrical Aerosol Analyzer (EAA) with both conventional (0.31 wt. pet sulfur) and low sulfur fuel (0.01 wt pet sulfur) with and without a ceramic diesel particle filter (DPF). The engine used for this study was a 1988 heavy-duty diesel engine (Cummins LTA10-300) operated at EPA steady-state modes 9 and 11. The particle size distribution results indicated the typical bi-modal distribution; however, there were clear differences in the number of particles in each mode for all conditions. For the baseline conditions with no DPF, there was more than one order of magnitude greater number of particles in the nuclei mode for the conventional fuel as compared to the low sulfur fuel, while the accumulation modes for each fuel were nearly identical.
Technical Paper

The Influence of a Low Sulfur Fuel and a Ceramic Particle Trap on the Physical, Chemical, and Biological Character of Heavy-Duty Diesel Emissions

1992-02-01
920565
This study was conducted to assess the effects of a low sulfur (<0.05 wt.%) fuel and an uncatalyzed ceramic particle trap on heavy-duty diesel emissions during both steady-state operation and during periods of electrically assisted trap regeneration. A Cummins LTA10-300 engine was operated at two steady-state modes with and without the trap. The exhaust trap system included a Corning EX-54 trap with an electrically assisted regeneration system. Both regulated emissions (oxides of nitrogen - NOx, total hydrocarbons - HC, and total particulate matter - TPM) and some unregulated emissions (polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons - PAH soluble organic fraction - SOF, sulfates, vapor phase organics, and mutagenic activity) were measured during baseline, trap, and regeneration conditions. Emissions were collected with low sulfur (0.01 wt.%) fuel and compared to emissions with a conventional sulfur (0.32 wt.%) fuel. These fuels also varied in other fuel properties.
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