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Technical Paper

Spatial Non-Uniformities in Diesel Particulate Trap Regeneration

2001-03-05
2001-01-0908
Diesel particulate trap regeneration is a complex process involving the interaction of phenomena at several scales. A hierarchy of models for the relevant physicochemical processes at the different scales of the problem (porous wall, filter channel, entire trap) is employed to obtain a rigorous description of the process in a multidimensional context. The final model structure is validated against experiments, resulting in a powerful tool for the computer-aided study of the regeneration behavior. In the present work we employ this tool to address the effect of various spatial non-uniformities on the regeneration characteristics of diesel particulate traps. Non-uniformities may include radial variations of flow, temperature and particulate concentration at the filter inlet, as well as variations of particulate loading. In addition, we study the influence of the distribution of catalytic activity along the filter wall.
Technical Paper

Validation of a Model and Development of a Simulator for Predicting the Pressure Drop of Diesel Particulate Filters

2001-03-05
2001-01-0911
As demand for wall-flow Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF) increases, accurate predictions of DPF behavior, and in particular their pressure drop, under a wide range of operating conditions bears significant engineering applications. In this work, validation of a model and development of a simulator for predicting the pressure drop of clean and particulate-loaded DPFs are presented. The model, based on a previously developed theory, has been validated extensively in this work. The validation range includes utilizing a large matrix of wall-flow filters varying in their size, cell density and wall thickness, each positioned downstream of light or heavy duty Diesel engines; it also covers a wide range of engine operating conditions such as engine load, flow rate, flow temperature and filter soot loading conditions. The validated model was then incorporated into a DPF pressure drop simulator.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Effect of a Catalyzed Particulate Filter on the Emissions from a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine with EGR

2001-03-05
2001-01-0910
The effects of a catalyzed particulate filter (CPF) and Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on heavy-duty diesel engine emissions were studied in this research. EGR is used to reduce the NOx emissions but at the same time it can increase total particulate matter (TPM) emissions. CPF is technology available for retrofitting existing vehicles in the field to reduce the TPM emissions. A conventional low sulfur fuel (371 ppm S) was used in all the engine runs. Steady-state loading and regeneration experiments were performed with CPF I to determine its performance with respect to pressure drop and particulate mass characteristics at different engine operating conditions. From the dilution tunnel emission characterization results for CPF II, at Mode 11 condition (25% load - 311 Nm, 1800 rpm), the TPM, HC and vapor phase emissions (XOC) were decreased by 70%, 62% and 62% respectively downstream of the CPF II.
Technical Paper

Inertial Contributions to the Pressure Drop of Diesel Particulate Filters

2001-03-05
2001-01-0909
Wall-flow Diesel particulate filters operating at low filtration velocities usually exhibit a linear dependence between the filter pressure drop and the flow rate, conveniently described by a generalized Darcy's law. It is advantageous to minimize filter pressure drop by sizing filters to operate within this linear range. However in practice, since there often exist serious constraints on the available vehicle underfloor space, a vehicle manufacturer is forced to choose an “undersized” filter resulting in high filtration velocities through the filter walls. Since secondary inertial contributions to the pressure drop become significant, Darcy's law can no longer accurately describe the filter pressure drop. In this paper, a systematic investigation of these secondary inertial flow effects is presented.
Technical Paper

High Performance Auto Parts Could be Produced Using CastCon Manufacturing Process

1997-02-24
970429
High performance auto parts such as aluminum composite cladding aluminum brake and Ti/Ti3/Al joined exhaust valve with localized Ti+TiC composite coating could be produced using a new manufacturing method - the CastCon process. The aluminum composite cladding aluminum brake consists of an aluminum alloy body with a cladding of SiC and graphite particulate filled aluminum composite on the friction surface of a brake disk or a drum. This structure can ensure an over-all light weight and integral strength and ductility. The SiC particulate in the cladding composite increases abrasion resistance and the graphite particulate provides required lubrication. The cladding can be as thick as desired. There is a flexibility in the manufacturing process for selecting SiC and graphite loading volumes as well as particulate size and shape. This allows the part to be engineered to achieve maximum performance.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Regeneration Process in Diesel Particulate Traps Using a Copper Fuel Additive

1996-02-01
960136
The goals of this research are to understand the regeneration process in ceramic (Cordierite) monolith traps using a copper fuel additive and to investigate the various conditions that lead to trap regeneration failure. The copper additive lowers the trap regeneration temperature from approximately 500 °C to 375 °C and decreases the time necessary for regeneration. Because of these characteristics, it is important to understand the effect of the additive on regeneration when excessive particulate matter accumulation occurs in the trap. The effects of particulate mass loading on regeneration temperatures and regeneration time were studied for both the controlled (engine operated at full load rated speed) and uncontrolled (trap regeneration initiated at full load rated speed after which the engine was cut to idle) conditions. The trap peak temperatures were higher for the uncontrolled than the controlled regeneration.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Fuel and Engine Design on Diesel Exhaust Particle Size Distributions

1996-02-01
960131
The objective of this research was to obtain diesel particle size distributions from a 1988 and a 1991 diesel engine using three different fuels and two exhaust control technologies (a ceramic particle trap and an oxidation catalytic converter). The particle size distributions from both engines were used to develop models to estimate the composition of the individual size particles. Nucleation theory of the H2O and H2SO4 vapor is used to predict when nuclei-mode particles will form in the dilution tunnel. Combining the theory with the experimental data, the conditions necessary in the dilution tunnel for particle formation are predicted. The paper also contains a discussion on the differences between the 1988 and 1991 engine's particle size distributions. The results indicated that nuclei mode particles (0.0075-0.046 μm) are formed in the dilution tunnel and consist of more than 80% H2O-H2SO4 particles when using the 1988 engine and 0.29 wt% sulfur fuel.
Technical Paper

An Automated Patternator for Fuel Injector Sprays

1996-02-01
960108
The spray pattern of a fuel injector is a key factor in the mixing of the fuel with the air. One effective means of determining the fuel distribution in the spray is to collect the fuel in tubes, from various regions of the spray. The amount of fuel in the tubes is measured. These measurements are used to create diagrams and curves which graphically represent the fuel distribution within the spray. The term “Patternator” has come to mean a device which determines the spray distribution, in the sense that the device determines the pattern of the spray. The objective of this paper is to describe the operation, features, and performance of an automated patternator designed and built at Michigan Technological University for Ford Motor Company. The patternator system was constructed for rapid determination of the spray pattern in order to expedite the development of automotive port fuel injectors.
Technical Paper

Effects of an Oxidation Catalytic Converter on Regulated and Unregulated Diesel Emissions

1994-03-01
940243
In this study, the effects of an oxidation catalytic converter (OCC) on regulated and unregulated emissions from a 1991 prototype Cummins I.10-310 diesel engine fueled with a 0.01 weight percent sulfur fuel were investigated. The OCC's effects were determined by measuring and comparing selected raw exhaust emissions with and without the platinum-based OCC installed in the exhaust system, with the engine operated at three steady-state modes. It was found that the OCC had no significant effect on oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and nitric oxide (NO) at any mode, but reduced hydrocarbon (HC) emmissions by 60 to 70 percent. The OCC reduced total particulate matter (TPM) levels by 27 to 54 percent, primarily resulting from 53 to 71 percent reductions of the soluble organic fraction (SOF). The OCC increased sulfate (SO42-) levels at two of the three modes (modes 9 and 10), but the overall SO42- contribution to TPM was less than 6 percent at all modes due to the low sulfur level of the fuel.
Technical Paper

A Review of Diesel Particulate Control Technology and Emissions Effects - 1992 Horning Memorial Award Lecture

1994-03-01
940233
Studies have been conducted at Michigan Technological University (MTU) for over twenty years on methods for characterizing and controlling particulate emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines and the resulting effects on regulated and unregulated emissions. During that time, control technologies have developed in response to more stringent EPA standards for diesel emissions. This paper is a review of: 1) modern emission control technologies, 2) emissions sampling and chemical, physical and biological characterization methods and 3) summary results from recent studies conducted at MTU on heavy-duty diesel engines with a trap and an oxidation catalytic converter (OCC) operated on three different fuels. Control technology developments discussed are particulate traps, catalysts, advances in engine design, the application of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), and modifications of fuel formulations.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Regeneration Characteristics of Silicon Carbide and Cordierite Diesel Particulate Filters Using a Copper Fuel Additive

1997-02-24
970187
The purpose of this research was to study the pressure drop profiles and regeneration temperature characteristics of Silicon Carbide (SiC) filters with and without a copper-based additive in the fuel, and also to compare their performance with two cordierite traps designated as EX-47 and EX-80. The collection of the particulate matter inside the trap imposes a backpressure on the engine which requires a periodic oxidation or regeneration of the particulate matter. The presence of copper additive in the fuel reduces the particulate ignition temperature from approximately 500 to 375°C. Two SiC systems were tested during this research. The first system consisted of one 14 L SiC trap, while the second system, the dual trap system (DTS), consisted of two 12 L SiC traps mounted in parallel. The test matrix included two types of regeneration tests, controlled and uncontrolled and three levels of Cu fuel additive (0, 30, and 60 ppm).
Technical Paper

A Theoretical and Experimental Study of the Regeneration Process in a Silicon Carbide Particulate Trap Using a Copper Fuel Additive

1997-02-24
970188
The purpose of this study was to investigate the pressure drop and regeneration characteristics of a silicon carbide (SiC) wall-flow diesel particulate filter. The performance of a 25 μm mean pore size SiC dual trap system (DTS) consisting of two 12 liter traps connected in parallel in conjunction with a copper (Cu) fuel additive was evaluated. A comparison between the 25 μm DTS and a 15 μm DTS was performed, in order to show the effect of trap material mean pore size on trap loading and regeneration behavior. A 1988 Cummins LTA 10-300 diesel engine was used to evaluate the performance of the 15 and 25 μm DTS. A mathematical model was developed to better understand the thermal and catalytic oxidation of the particulate matter. For all the trap steady-state loading tests, the engine was run at EPA mode 11 for 10 hours. Raw exhaust samples were taken upstream and downstream of the trap system in order to determine the DTS filtration efficiency.
Technical Paper

The Influence of an Oxidation Catalytic Converter and Fuel Composition on the Chemical and Biological Characteristics of Diesel Exhaust Emissions

1992-02-01
920854
The U.S. Bureau of Mines and Michigan Technological University are collaborating to conduct laboratory evaluations of oxidation catalytic converters (OCCs) and diesel fuels to identify combinations which minimize potentially harmful emissions. The purpose is to provide technical information concerning diesel exhaust emission control to the mining industry, regulators, and vendors of fuel and emission control devices. In this study, an Engelhard PTX 10 DVC (Ultra-10)* OCC was evaluated in the exhaust stream of an indirect injection Caterpillar 3304 PCNA mining engine using a light-duty laboratory transient cycle. This cycle was selected because it causes high emissions of particle-associated organics. Results are also reported for two different fuels with similar sulfur contents (0.03-0.04 wt pct) and a cetane number of 53, but different aromatic contents (11 vs. 20 wt pct).
Technical Paper

The Effect of a Ceramic Trap on Diesel Particulate: Fractions

1986-03-01
860620
A study of the Corning ceramic diesel particulate trap was conducted to investigate the trap's overall effect on diesel particulate fractions (soluble organic fraction. SOF; solid fraction, SOL; and sulfate fraction. SO4) under four different engine loads at 1680 rpm. The trap was found to filter the SOL fraction most efficiently with the SOF and SO4 fraction following in respective order. The filter efficiency of all fractions increased with increasing engine load. Graphs illustrating filter efficiency versus engine load indicate the slope of the SOF filter efficiency was smaller in magnitude than the TPM and SOL and SO4, fractions, which had similar slopes. The different slope of the SOF filter efficiency indicates other influences may be involved with the reduction in the SOF through the trap. Particle size distribution measurements in diluted exhaust revealed particle formation downstream of the trap.
Technical Paper

The Engineering Control of Diesel Pollutants in Underground Mining

1981-04-01
810684
A review of mine air pollutant standards and the important pollutants to control in underground mines using diesel powered equipment is presented. The underground Mine Air Quality Laboratory instrumentation is discussed. This includes the Mine Air Monitoring Laboratory (MAML) and the instrumented Load Haul Dump (LHD) vehicle. The MAML measures CO, NO2, NO, CO2, particulate and temperatures while the LHD instrumentation measures and records engine speed, rack position (fuel rate), vehicle speed, CO2 concentration, exhaust temperature and operating mode with transducers and a Sea Data Corporation data logging and reader system. The mine LHD cycle data are related to the EPA 13 mode cycle data. Engine and aftertreatment emission control methods are reviewed including recent laboratory NO, NO2, sulfate and particulate data for a monolith catalyst. Maintenance of the LHD vehicle by engine subsystems in relation to component effects on emissions is presented.
Technical Paper

Development of a 1-D Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter Model for Simulation of the Oxidation of Particulate Matter and Gaseous Species During Passive Oxidation and Active Regeneration

2013-04-08
2013-01-1574
Numerical modeling of aftertreatment systems has been proven to reduce development time as well as to facilitate understanding of the internal physical and chemical processes occurring during different operating conditions. Such a numerical model for a catalyzed diesel particulate filter (CPF) was developed in this research work which has been improved from an existing numerical model briefly described in reference. The focus of this CPF model was to predict the effect of the catalyst on the gaseous species concentrations and to develop particulate matter (PM) filtration and oxidation models for the PM cake layer and substrate wall so as to develop an overall model that accurately predicts the pressure drop and PM oxidized during passive oxidation and active regeneration. Descriptions of the governing equations and corresponding numerical methods used with relevant boundary conditions are presented.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Dilution Effects on Particle Size Measurement from a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine with EGR

2001-03-05
2001-01-0220
A study of particle size distributions was conducted on a Cummins M11 1995 engine using the Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) instrument in the baseline and downstream of the Catalyzed Particulate Filter (CPF). Measurements were made in the dilution tunnel to investigate the effect of primary dilution ratio and mixture temperature on the nuclei and accumulation mode particle formation. Experiments were conducted at two different engine modes namely Mode 11 (25% load - 311 Nm, 1800 rpm) and Mode 9 (75% load - 932 Nm, 1800 rpm). The nanoparticle formation decreased with increasing dilution ratios for a constant mixture temperature in the baseline as well as downstream of the CPF II for Mode 11 condition. At Mode 9 condition in the baseline, the dilution ratio had a little effect on the nanoparticle formation, since the distribution was not bimodal and was dominated by accumulation mode particles.
Technical Paper

A Computational Model Describing the Performance of a Ceramic Diesel Particulate Trap in Steady-State Operation and Over a Transient Cycle

1999-03-01
1999-01-0465
A model for calculating the trap pressure drop, various particulate properties, filtration characteristics and trap temperatures was developed during the steady-state and transient cycles using the theory originated by Opris and Johnson, 1998. This model was validated with the data obtained from the steady-state cycles run with an IBIDEN SiC diesel particulate filter. To evaluate the trap experimental filtration efficiency, raw exhaust samples were taken upstream and downstream of the trap. A trap scaling and equivalent comparison model was developed for comparing different traps at the same volume and same filtration area. Using the model, the trap pressure drop data obtained from different traps were compared equivalently at the same trap volume and same filtration area. The pressure drop performance of the IBIDEN SiC trap compared favorably to the previously tested NoTox SiC and the Cordierite traps.
Journal Article

Effects of Biodiesel Blends on Particulate Matter Oxidation in a Catalyzed Particulate Filter during Active Regeneration

2010-04-12
2010-01-0557
Active regeneration experiments were performed on a production diesel aftertreatment system containing a diesel oxidation catalyst and catalyzed particulate filter (CPF) using blends of soy-based biodiesel. The effects of biodiesel on particulate matter oxidation rates in the filter were explored. These experiments are a continuation of the work performed by Chilumukuru et al., in SAE Technical Paper No. 2009-01-1474, which studied the active regeneration characteristics of the same aftertreatment system using ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel. Experiments were conducted using a 10.8 L 2002 Cummins ISM heavy-duty diesel engine. Particulate matter loading of the filter was performed at the rated engine speed of 2100 rpm and 20% of the full engine load of 1120 Nm. At this engine speed and load the passive oxidation rate is low. The 17 L CPF was loaded to a particulate matter level of 2.2 g/L.
Technical Paper

Multi-Physics and CFD analysis of an Enclosed Coaxial Carbon Nanotube Speaker for Automotive Exhaust Noise Cancellation

2019-06-05
2019-01-1569
Automotive exhaust noise is one of the major sources of noise pollution and it is controlled by passive control system (mufflers) and active control system (loudspeakers and active control algorithm). Mufflers are heavy, bulky and large in size while loudspeakers have a working temperature limitation. Carbon nanotube (CNT) speakers generate sound due to the thermoacoustic effect. When an alternating current is passed through the CNT film having low heat capacity per unit area, their surface temperature undergoes rapid oscillations. These oscillations create density variation in the surrounding medium, resulting in generation of pressure waves or sound. CNT speakers are also lightweight, flexible, have acoustic and light transparency as well as high operating temperature. These properties make them ideal to overcome the limitations of the current exhaust noise control systems. An enclosed, coaxial CNT speaker is designed for exhaust noise cancellation application.
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