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Technical Paper

The Performance of a Spark-Ignited Stratified-Charge Two Stroke Engine Operating on a Kerosine Based Aviation Fuel

1997-09-08
972737
This study examines the feasibility of broadening the fuel capabilities of a direct-injected two-stroke engine with stratified combustion. A three cylinder, direct-injected two-stroke engine was modified to operate on JP-5, a kerosene-based jet fuel that is heavier, more viscous, and less volatile than gasoline. Demonstration of engine operation with such a fuel after appropriate design modifications would significantly enhance the utilization of this engine in a variety of applications. Results have indicated that the performance characteristics of this engine with jet fuel are similar to that of gasoline with respect to torque and power output at low speeds and loads, but the engine's performance is hampered at the higher speeds and loads by the occurrence of knock.
Technical Paper

Noise and Emission Reduction Strategies for a Snowmobile

2000-09-11
2000-01-2573
The following paper discusses alternative strategies for reducing noise and emission production from a two-stroke snowmobile. Electric, two-stroke and four-stroke solutions were analyzed and considered for entry in the Clean Snowmobile Challenge (CSC) 2000. A two-stroke solution was utilized primarily due to time constraints. Complete snowmobile competition results are provided. The electric solution, while the most effective at reducing emissions, is negatively impacted by weight and cost. A modified two-stroke solution, limited by cost and complexity, does not provide the required improvements in emissions. A four-stroke solution reduces noise and emissions and provides an acceptable trade-off between noise, emissions, performance and cost.
Technical Paper

Design and Testing of a Four-Stroke, EFI Snowmobile with Catalytic Exhaust Treatment

2001-09-24
2001-01-3657
The successful implementation of a clean, quiet, four-stroke engine into an existing snowmobile chassis has been achieved. The snowmobile is easy to start, easy to drive and environmentally friendly. The following paper describes the conversion process in detail with actual engine test data. The hydrocarbon emissions of the new, four-stroke snowmobile are 98% lower than current, production, two-stroke models. The noise production of the four-stroke snowmobile was 68 dBA during an independent wide open throttle acceleration test. If the four-stroke snowmobile were to replace all current, two-stroke snowmobiles in Yellowstone National Park (YNP), the vehicles would only produce 16% of the combined automobile and snowmobile hydrocarbon emissions compared to the current 93% produced by two-stroke snowmobiles.
Book

Clean Snowmobile Challenge - 2: The Revival of the 2-stroke Engine and Studying Flex Fuel Engines

2017-02-01
This collection is a resource for studying the history of the evolving technologies that have contributed to snowmobiles becoming cleaner and quieter machines. Papers address design for a snowmobile using the EPA test procedure and standard for off-road vehicles. Innovative technology solutions include: • Engine Design: improving the two-stroke, gas direct injection (GDI) engine • Applications of new muffler designs and a catalytic converter • Solving flex-fuel design and engine power problems The SAE International Clean Snowmobile Challenge (CSC) program is an engineering design competition. The program provides undergraduate and graduate students the opportunity to enhance their engineering design and project management skills by reengineering a snowmobile to reduce emissions and noise. The competition includes internal combustion engine categories that address both gasoline and diesel, as well as the zero emissions category in which range and draw bar performance are measured.
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