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Technical Paper

Inertial Contributions to the Pressure Drop of Diesel Particulate Filters

Wall-flow Diesel particulate filters operating at low filtration velocities usually exhibit a linear dependence between the filter pressure drop and the flow rate, conveniently described by a generalized Darcy's law. It is advantageous to minimize filter pressure drop by sizing filters to operate within this linear range. However in practice, since there often exist serious constraints on the available vehicle underfloor space, a vehicle manufacturer is forced to choose an “undersized” filter resulting in high filtration velocities through the filter walls. Since secondary inertial contributions to the pressure drop become significant, Darcy's law can no longer accurately describe the filter pressure drop. In this paper, a systematic investigation of these secondary inertial flow effects is presented.
Technical Paper

The Use of Results from Computational Fluid Dynamic Fuel Injector Modeling to Predict Spray Characteristics

The fluid flow characteristics inside compound silicon micro machined port fuel injector nozzles were analyzed through the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). This study was undertaken in order to gain a better understanding of the fluid mechanics taking place in the compound orifice plate. In addition, the calculated computational results will be used to predict the fuel spray patterns and sauter mean diameters of the sprays. The influence of orifice plate geometry on calculated turbulent kinetic energies and fuel spray patterns was also studied and will be discussed. The results of this investigation indicate that the fluid flow characteristics inside the compound silicon micro machined port fuel injector nozzle are influenced by the geometries of the compound orifice plate, and that the flow characteristic inside the orifice plate effect the type of spray produced by the injector.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Engine Control Strategies During Transient Processes Combining 1-D and 3-D Approaches

One-dimensional simulation methods for unsteady (transient) engine operations have been developed and published in previous studies. These 1-D methods utilize heat release and emissions results obtained from 3-D CFD simulations which are stored in a data library. The goal of this study is to improve the 1-D methodology by optimizing the control strategies. Also, additional independent parameters are introduced to extend the 3-D data library, while, as in the previous studies, the number of interpolation points for each parameter remains small. The data points for the 3-D simulations are selected in the vicinity of the expected trajectories obtained from the independent parameter changes, as predicted by the transient 1-D simulations. By this approach, the number of time-consuming 3-D simulations is limited to a reasonable amount.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Studies on Combustion Model Selection for Split Injection Spray Combustion

A wide variety of spray models and their associated sub-models exist to assist with numerical spray development studies in the many applicable areas viz., turbines, internal combustion engines etc. The accuracy of a simulation when compared to the experiments varies, as these models chosen are varied. Also, the computational grid plays a crucial role in model correctness; a grid-converged CFD study is more valuable and assists in proper validation at later stages. Of primary relevance to this paper are the combustion models for a grid-converged Lagrangian spray modeling scenario. CONVERGE CFD code is used for simulation of split injection diesel (n-heptane) sprays and a structured methodology, using RNG k-ε turbulence model, is followed to obtain a grid-converged solution for the key Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) parameters viz., grid size, injected parcels and spray break-up time constant.
Journal Article

Investigation of Key Mechanisms for Liquid Length Fluctuations in Transient Vaporizing Diesel Sprays

Diesel combustion and emissions formation is spray and mixing controlled and understanding spray parameters is key to determining the impact of fuel injector operation and nozzle design on combustion and emissions. In this study, both spray visualization and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling were undertaken to investigate key mechanisms for liquid length fluctuations. For the experimental portion of this study a common rail piezoelectric injector was tested in an optically accessible constant volume combustion vessel. Liquid penetration of the spray was determined via processing of images acquired from Mie back scattering under vaporizing conditions by injecting into a charge gas at elevated temperature with a 0% oxygen environment. Tests were undertaken at a gas density of 34.8 kg/m₃, 2000 bar injection pressure, and at ambient temperatures of 900, 1100, and 1300 K.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulations for Spray Characterization of Uneven Multiple Jet-to-Jet Impingement Injectors

Spray structure has a significant effect on emissions and performance of an internal combustion engine. The main objective of this study is to investigate spray structures based on four different multiple jet impingement injectors. These four different multiple jet-to-jet impingement injectors include 1). 4-hole injector (Case 1), which has symmetric inwardly opening nozzles; 2). 5-1-hole (Case 2); 3). 6-2-hole (Case 3); and 4). 7-3-hole (Case 4) which corresponding to 1, 2, 3 numbers of adjacent holes blocked in a 5-hole, 6-hole, and 7-hole symmetrical drill pattern, respectively. All these configurations are basically 4-holes but with different post collision spray structure. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) work of these sprays has been performed using an Eulerian-Lagrangian modelling approach.
Technical Paper

Multi-Physics and CFD analysis of an Enclosed Coaxial Carbon Nanotube Speaker for Automotive Exhaust Noise Cancellation

Automotive exhaust noise is one of the major sources of noise pollution and it is controlled by passive control system (mufflers) and active control system (loudspeakers and active control algorithm). Mufflers are heavy, bulky and large in size while loudspeakers have a working temperature limitation. Carbon nanotube (CNT) speakers generate sound due to the thermoacoustic effect. When an alternating current is passed through the CNT film having low heat capacity per unit area, their surface temperature undergoes rapid oscillations. These oscillations create density variation in the surrounding medium, resulting in generation of pressure waves or sound. CNT speakers are also lightweight, flexible, have acoustic and light transparency as well as high operating temperature. These properties make them ideal to overcome the limitations of the current exhaust noise control systems. An enclosed, coaxial CNT speaker is designed for exhaust noise cancellation application.