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Technical Paper

A Study of the Effect of a Catalyzed Particulate Filter on the Emissions from a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine with EGR

2001-03-05
2001-01-0910
The effects of a catalyzed particulate filter (CPF) and Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on heavy-duty diesel engine emissions were studied in this research. EGR is used to reduce the NOx emissions but at the same time it can increase total particulate matter (TPM) emissions. CPF is technology available for retrofitting existing vehicles in the field to reduce the TPM emissions. A conventional low sulfur fuel (371 ppm S) was used in all the engine runs. Steady-state loading and regeneration experiments were performed with CPF I to determine its performance with respect to pressure drop and particulate mass characteristics at different engine operating conditions. From the dilution tunnel emission characterization results for CPF II, at Mode 11 condition (25% load - 311 Nm, 1800 rpm), the TPM, HC and vapor phase emissions (XOC) were decreased by 70%, 62% and 62% respectively downstream of the CPF II.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Effects of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Emissions

1998-05-04
981422
The effects of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on heavy-duty diesel emissions were studied at two EPA steady-state operating conditions, old EPA mode 9* (1800 RPM, 75% Load) and old EPA mode 11 (1800 RPM, 25% Load). Data were collected at the baseline, 10% and 16% EGR rates for both EPA modes. The study was conducted using a 1995 Cummins M11-330E heavy-duty diesel engine and compared to the baseline emissions from the Cummins 1988 and 1991 L10 engines. The baseline gas-, vapor- and particle-phase emissions were measured together with the particle size distributions at all modes of operation. The total particulate matter (TPM) and vapor phase (XOC) samples were analyzed for physical, chemical and biological properties. The results showed that newer engines with electronic engine controls and higher injector pressures produce TPM decreases from the 1988 to 1991 to 1995 engines with the solids decreasing more than the soluble organic fraction (SOF) of TPM.
Technical Paper

A Review of Diesel Particulate Control Technology and Emissions Effects - 1992 Horning Memorial Award Lecture

1994-03-01
940233
Studies have been conducted at Michigan Technological University (MTU) for over twenty years on methods for characterizing and controlling particulate emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines and the resulting effects on regulated and unregulated emissions. During that time, control technologies have developed in response to more stringent EPA standards for diesel emissions. This paper is a review of: 1) modern emission control technologies, 2) emissions sampling and chemical, physical and biological characterization methods and 3) summary results from recent studies conducted at MTU on heavy-duty diesel engines with a trap and an oxidation catalytic converter (OCC) operated on three different fuels. Control technology developments discussed are particulate traps, catalysts, advances in engine design, the application of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), and modifications of fuel formulations.
Technical Paper

The Study of the Effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on Engine Wear in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Using Analytical Ferrography

1986-03-01
860378
A study was undertaken to investigate the affect of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on engine wear and lubricating oil degradation in a heavy duty diesel engine using a newly developed methodology that uses analytical ferrography in conjunction with short term tests. Laboratory engine testing was carried out on a Cummins NTC-300 Big Cam II diesel engine at rated speed (1800 RPM) and 75% rated load with EGR rates of 0, 5, and 15% using a SAE 15W40 CD/SF/EO-K oil. Dynamometer engine testing involved collecting oil samples from the engine sump at specified time intervals through each engine test. These oil samples were analyzed using a number of different oil analysis techniques that provide information on the metal wear debris and also on the lubricating oil properties. The results from these oil analysis techniques are the basis of determining the effect of EGR on engine wear and lubricating oil degradation, rather than an actual engine tear down between engine tests.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Oxygenated Biofuel on Intake Oxygen Concentration, EGR, and Performance of a 1.9L Diesel Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0868
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) has been employed in a diesel engine to reduce NOx emissions by diluting the fresh air charge with gases composed of primarily N2, CO2, H2O, and O2 from the engines exhaust stream. The addition of EGR reduces the production of NOx by lowering the peak cylinder gas temperature and reducing the concentration of O2 molecules, both of which contribute to the NOx formation mechanism. The amount of EGR has been typically controlled using an open loop control strategy where the flow of EGR was calibrated to the engine speed and load and controlled by the combination of an EGR valve and the ratio of the boost and exhaust back pressures. When oxygenated biofuels with lower specific energy are used, the engine control unit (ECU) will demand a higher fuel rate to maintain power output, which can alter the volumetric flow rate of EGR. In addition, oxygenated biofuels affect the oxygen concentration in the intake manifold gas stream.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Engine Control Strategies During Transient Processes Combining 1-D and 3-D Approaches

2010-04-12
2010-01-0783
One-dimensional simulation methods for unsteady (transient) engine operations have been developed and published in previous studies. These 1-D methods utilize heat release and emissions results obtained from 3-D CFD simulations which are stored in a data library. The goal of this study is to improve the 1-D methodology by optimizing the control strategies. Also, additional independent parameters are introduced to extend the 3-D data library, while, as in the previous studies, the number of interpolation points for each parameter remains small. The data points for the 3-D simulations are selected in the vicinity of the expected trajectories obtained from the independent parameter changes, as predicted by the transient 1-D simulations. By this approach, the number of time-consuming 3-D simulations is limited to a reasonable amount.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Character and Deposition Rates of Sulfur Species in the EGR Cooling System of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

1999-10-25
1999-01-3566
Various measurement techniques were employed to quantify sulfuric acid deposition levels and concentration of sulfuric acid in the condensate from the recirculated exhaust gas heat exchanger of a 1995 Cummins M11 heavy-duty diesel engine. Methods employed included a modified version of the sulfur species sampling system developed by Kreso et al. (1)*, rinsing the heat exchanger, and experiments employing a condensate collection device (CCD). The modified sampling system was applied to the inlet and outlet of the heat exchanger in order to quantify the changes in various sulfur compounds. Doped sulfur fuel (3300 to 4000 ppm S) was used to increase the concentrations of the various oxides of sulfur (SOx). These tests were performed at mode 9 of the old EPA 13-mode test cycle (1800 RPM, 932N*m) with 17-20% exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) at two EGR outlet temperatures: 160°C and 103°C.
Journal Article

Numerical Investigation of Laminar Flame Speed of Gasoline - Ethanol/Air Mixtures with Varying Pressure, Temperature and Dilution

2010-04-12
2010-01-0620
A numerical analysis was performed to study the variation of the laminar burning speed of gasoline-ethanol blend, pressure, temperature and dilution using the one-dimensional premixed flame code CHEMKIN™. A semi-detailed validated chemical kinetic model (142 species and 672 reactions) for a gasoline surrogate fuel was used. The pure components in the surrogate fuel consist of n-heptane, isooctane and toluene. The ethanol mole fraction was varied from 0 to 85 percent, initial pressure from 4 to 8 bar, initial temperature from 300 to 600K, and the EGR dilution from 0 to 32% to represent the in-cylinder conditions of a spark-ignition engine. The laminar flame speed is found to increase with ethanol concentration and temperature but decrease with pressure and dilution.
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